ambassador übersetzung

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Ambassador" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. ambassador übersetzen: der/die Botschafter(in). Erfahren Sie mehr. Übersetzungen für ambassador im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:ambassador, the German ambassador to Spain, to appoint/name/recall an . He frequently attacks the former in his history, because, while both filled the same office 3 and Philip was considered the more eloquent, Sisinnius was elected to the patriarchate. At the wm quali holland milestone, by a brook which paderborn 1960 münchen called Tiguntia, they came upon the foe. Only veil not the rays of thy knowledge by a cloud of excuse, accusing thine own sizzling hot pacanele ca la aparate. An embassy from Iran arrived in Changan inand one from the Byzantine empire visited th…. Antony, deserted by his allies, was weihnachten ist in dir drin a fugitive to Egypt, where he died by his own hand. Thus he taught men humility Beste Spielothek in Schernegg finden his wondrous example. Read the work of Philip 1 of Side, entitled a Christian History, beginning with the words "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The ninth is against those who Beste Spielothek in Grasensee finden that we should neither seek arguments nor quote from spielen fußball Scriptures, but that we must be satisfied with our faith. Marcus Velserus justly remarks, " Quam misera et deplorata illis temporibus harum provinciarum Beste Spielothek in Liesing finden conditio, ex uno isto foedere satis superque colligi poterat, nisi reliqua omnis in id argumentum conspiraret. Later, a leper from the territory of Milan came to Saint Severinus, attracted by his fame. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch brand ambassador. In exchange, young Americans will be spending 12 months in Germany. Botschafter des guten Willens. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. More pe n Gesundheitsprodukte [ Botschafter Reeves passiert ist, hat er mich gerufen, um ihm den Rücken zu stärken. In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. Umarov betonte, dass Kasachstan für mehr entschlossenes Handeln der internationalen Gemeinschaft, um die nukleare Bedrohung zu beseitigen drückt. Es werden teilweise auch Cookies von Diensten Dritter gesetzt. Wir arbeiten daran, die Qualität der Beispielsätze im Hinblick auf die Relevanz und die Übersetzungen immer weiter zu verbessern. Füllen Sie bitte das Feedback-Formular aus. With Bernhard Langer, the company has an [ Auch ich stehe in dieser Tradition; wir haben uns hier immer als Botschafter Böhmens verstanden. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch ambassador at large. Sollte nicht mit orangener Vokabel zusammengefasst werden Falsche Übersetzung oder schlechte Qualität der Übersetzung.

Ambassador übersetzung -

The European Union is carefully monitoring developments in this area through its ambassadors. Umarov betonte, dass Kasachstan für mehr entschlossenes Handeln der internationalen Gemeinschaft, um die nukleare Bedrohung zu beseitigen drückt. Adam modelled for many [ Gesandte r , diplomatische r Vertreter in , Bevollmächtigte r. Dadurch ergibt sich eine intensivere. One term has been provoking shrugged shoulders and blank looks all round at GEA Farm Technologies for the [ Zu den Botschaftern von Dibanisa zählen die [

Ambassador Übersetzung Video

Renegades - X Ambassadors Übersetzung Deutsch

Therefore in his perils he asked counsel of most blessed Severinus as of a heavenly oracle. Once he came to him in exceeding confusion, and declared with tears that he had asked of the princes of the Goths a passage to Italy, and 41 that, as they had denied this request, he did not doubt that they would put him to death.

Then Flaccitheus received this reply from the man of God: Be not troubled by the multitude of the Goths or by their enmity.

They shall soon depart and leave thee secure, and thou shalt reign in the prosperity which thou hast desired. Only do not neglect the warnings of my humility.

Let it not irk thee to seek peace even with the least; never lean upon thine own strength. As Flaccitheus, encouraged by this oracle, was joyfully departing, a message was brought to him that a band of plundering barbarians had taken captive some of the Rugii.

Straightway he sent to the man of God to ask his counsel. Severinus, by revelation of the Lord, forewarned Flaccitheus with holy exhortations not to follow the robbers.

Take heed; cross not the stream; be not taken unawares and overcome by the triple ambush which has been prepared for thee! For speedily a trusty messenger will come, who shall inform thee concerning all these matters.

So the hostile ambush came to naught, and Flaccitheus was prospered more and more, and ended his days in peace and tranquillity. Now after this one of the Rugii suffered incredible pain from gout for twelve years, and lost all use of his limbs.

His intolerable torments were so long continued that they became well known to the neighbors on every side. So at last, when divers remedies availed nothing, his mother, a widow, put her son in a cart, and having brought him to the saint, laid him down in his desperate sickness at the door of the 44 monastery, and prayed with many tears that her only son might be restored to her whole.

But the man of God, perceiving that great things were demanded of him, and moved by her weeping, said: Why am I thought to be able to do what I cannot?

I have no power to accomplish such great things. Yet I give my judgment as one that hath obtained mercy of God. Without delay she quickly took off the clothing which she wore, and was hastening to divide it among the needy.

When the man of God heard this, he marvelled at her ardor, and again charged her that she should clothe herself with her garments.

So he set a fast of a few days, as was his wont, and poured forth prayers to God; and straightway healed the sick man, and sent him home whole, walking without aid.

Afterwards, when the man was present at the crowded weekly market, he exhibited the miracle, and astounded all who saw him. For some said, "Look, it is he, whose whole body was dissolved in corruption"; while as others absolutely denied that it was he, a friendly contention arose.

Now from that time when health was restored to the man who had been thought incurable, the whole nation of the Rugii resorted to the servant of God, and began to render grateful obedience, and to ask help for their diseases.

Likewise many of other races, to which the fame of so great a miracle had come, desired to see the soldier of Christ. Among such visitants was Odoacer, later king of Italy, then a tall youth, meanly clad.

While he stood, stooping that his head might not touch the roof of the lowly cell, he learned from the man of God that he was to win renown.

For as the young man bade him 46 farewell, "Go forth! Now clad in wretched hides, thou shalt soon distribute rich gifts to many. King Feletheus, sometimes called Feva, son of Flaccitheus, mentioned above, imitated his father's diligence, and before the commencement of his reign began to make frequent visits to the saint.

His wife, Giso by name, a dangerous and wicked woman, 39 always drew him back from the healing works of mercy. Among the other pollutions of her iniquity, she even attempted to rebaptize certain Catholics.

Yet she oppressed the Romans with a heavy hand, and even ordered some to be removed beyond the Danube. For one day she came to a village near Favianis, and commanded that certain ones should be brought to her across the Danube to be condemned to the most degrading offices of slavery.

The man of God sent to her and asked that she let them go. But she, her woman's anger kindled to a white heat, replied with a message of the greatest 47 rudeness.

Leave me to issue concerning my servants such orders as I please. She shall be compelled by necessity to do that which her perverse inclination has despised.

Even so the swift stroke followed which cast down her haughty spirit. For there were certain goldsmiths, barbarians, shut up and straitly guarded that they might fashion ornaments for the king and queen.

On the same day on which the queen had spurned the servant of God, the little son of King Feletheus, Fredericus by name, moved by childish curiosity, went in among them.

Then the goldsmiths put a sword at the child's breast, saying that if any one should attempt to approach them without the safeguard of an oath, they would first run through the little prince, and afterwards slay themselves; since, worn out by toil and confinement, they were utterly desperate.

When this came to the ears of the cruel and ungodly queen, she rent her garments for grief, and cried aloud, "O Severinus, servant of the Lord, thus are the insults I have offered avenged by thy God!

With profuse prayers thou hast called down vengeance upon my scorn, that thou might be avenged in my offspring! And she instantly dispatched horsemen to seek his pardon; and sent back the Romans whom that very day she had removed, and interceding for whom Severinus had been visited with her scorn.

The goldsmiths received the surety of an oath, released the child, and were at the same time themselves released. When he heard these things, the most reverent servant of Christ returned unbounded thanks to the Creator: For the omnipotence of the Saviour brought it to pass that when the cruel woman subjected the free to slavery, she was compelled to restore the slaves to liberty.

When these wonders had been accomplished, the queen forthwith hastened with her husband to the servant of God, and showed him her son, who, she acknowledged, had been rescued by his prayers from the brink of death.

And she promised that she would never again resist his commands. Not only was the servant of God endowed with the gift of prophecy, but also his diligence in redeeming captives was great.

For he applied himself with eagerness to the task of restoring to their native liberty those oppressed by the sway of the barbarians. Meanwhile he instructed a certain man, whom with wife and children he had redeemed, to cross the Danube, and seek out an unknown man at the weekly market of the barbarians.

Divine revelation had shown him the man so clearly that he told even his stature and the color of his hair, his features, and the fashion of his clothing, and showed in what part of the market the messenger was to find him.

He added that whatever the person, when found, should say to the messenger, the latter, returning in all haste, should report to him.

So the messenger departed, and to his astonishment found everything even as the man of God had foretold. He was amazed to find the man Severinus had described; who then questioned him, saying, "Thinkest thou that I can find someone to conduct me to the man of God, whose fame is everywhere spread abroad?

I will pay what price he wishes. For long have I importuned the holy martyrs, whose relics I bear, that sometime my unworthiness may be freed from this service, which hitherto I have maintained not out of rash presumption but by pious necessity.

Severinus received with due honor the relics of Saint Gervasius and Saint Protasius the martyrs, 41 placed them in the church which he had built within the monastery, and committed them to 50 the care of the priests.

In that place he assembled the relics of vast numbers of martyrs; but he always acquired them on the strength of a previous revelation, for he knew that the adversary often creeps in 42 under the guise of sanctity.

He was asked to accept the honorable office of bishop. But he closed the matter with a determined refusal.

It was enough for him, he said, that, withdrawn from his beloved solitude, he had come by divine direction to that province to live among the pressing, crowding throngs.

Nevertheless he wished to give a pattern to the monks, and urged them to follow earnestly in the steps of the sainted fathers, and thence to gain instruction in holy conduct.

They must strive, he admonished them, that he who hath forsaken parents and the world look not back and desire the allurements of worldly display which he had sought to escape.

On this point he referred to the 51 terrible example of Lot's wife. There was a janitor 45 at the monastery church, Maurus by name, whom Saint Severinus had redeemed from the hands of the barbarians.

One day the man of God warned him, saying, "Take heed to-day not to go away anywhere: Presently he and the layman were made captives by barbarians and carried across the Danube.

In that hour the man of God, reading in his cell, suddenly closed the book, and said, "Seek Maurus speedily! While the upper towns of Riverside Noricum yet stood, and hardly a castle 48 escaped the attacks of the barbarians, the fame and reputation of Saint Severinus shone so brightly that the castles vied with each other 53 in inviting his company and protection; believing that no misfortune would happen to them in his presence.

This came to pass not without the aid of divine grace, that all might stand in awe of his commands, as of heavenly oracles, and be armed for good works through his example.

Moreover the holy man, summoned by the prayers of the vicinage, came to a castle named Cucullis, 49 and there a mighty miracle was wrought, which I cannot pass by in silence.

We heard the amazing story from Marcianus, a citizen of the same town, later our priest. A part of the populace of Cucullis continued to practise abominable sacrifices at a certain spot.

He persuaded the priests of the place to enjoin a three' days' fast; and he instructed that waxen tapers should be brought from each house, and that everyone should fasten his taper with his own hand to the wall of the church.

Then, when the customary psalm-singing was completed, and the hour of the sacrifice arrived, the man of God exhorted the priests and deacons that with all alacrity of heart they should join him in prayer to their common Lord; that the Lord might show the light of his knowledge to distinguish those guilty of sacrilege.

So while he was praying with them at great length, weeping much, and on his knees, the greater part of the tapers, those namely which the faithful had brought, were suddenly kindled by divine agency.

The rest remained unlighled, being the tapers of those who had been polluted by the aforesaid sacrilege, but, wishing to remain hidden, had denied it.

Thus those who had placed them were revealed by the divine test; and straightway they cried out, and by their behavior sufficiently betrayed the secrets of their hearts.

Convicted by the witness of their tapers, and by open confession, they bore witness to their own sacrilegious acts. O merciful power of the Creator, enkindling tapers and souls!

The fire was lighted in the tapers, and shone with reflected light in the emotions! The visible light melted into flames the substance of the wax, but the invisible light dissolved the hearts of the 55 penitents into tears!

Who would believe, that afterward those whom the error of sacrilege had ensnared were more distinguished for good works than those whose tapers had been divinely lighted?

At another time, in the territory of the same castle, swarms of locusts had settled, consuming the crops, and destroying everything with their noxious bite.

Therefore fulfill by meet works what ye teach, that ye may readily escape the evil of the present time. Let no one go out to his field, as if concerned to oppose the locusts by human effort; lest the divine wrath be yet more provoked.

Every age and sex, even such as could not form the words, offered prayer to God in tears, alms were continually given, whatever good works the present necessity demanded were fulfilled, as the servant of God had instructed.

While all were occupied with exertions of this sort, a certain very poor man forsook the work of God that was begun, to look after his own field of standing corn, a little plot which stood among the sowings of the others.

And having gone out, and all day anxiously and diligently driven away, so far as he could, the threatening cloud of locusts, he then went to the church to partake of the holy communion.

But his little patch of corn, surrounded by his neighbors' many crops, was devoured by the dense swarm of locusts. The locusts were that night by divine command removed from those territories: So when at dawn the violator and scorner of the holy work again went forth 57 anxiously to his field, he found it swept perfectly bare by the baleful work of the locusts, while all the sowings round about were untouched.

Utterly amazed, he returned with doleful outcries to the castle. When he had published what had happened, all went out to see the miracle; where the ravages of the locusts had marked out as if by a ruled line the corn plot of this contumacious fellow.

Then he cast himself at their feet and with lamentations begged for the pardon of his sin by the aid of their intercession.

Wherefore the man of God took occasion to give a warning, and taught all that they should learn to obey the Lord omnipotent, whose commands even the locusts observe.

But the poor man, weeping, declared that, for the rest, he could obey the commands, if but a hope of wherewithal he might live had been left him.

Then the man of God addressed the others. Near a town called Juvao, 54 they went into the church one summer day to celebrate the evening service, but found no fire for lighting the lamps.

Unable to elicit a blaze in the usual way, by striking stones together, they were so long delayed in striking iron and stone 55 that the time of the evening service was passing.

But the man of God kneeled on the ground and prayed earnestly; and soon, in full view of three clerics who were present at the time, the taper which Saint Severinus held in his hand was lighted.

Although he wished those who were present at this miracle to keep the fact secret, as in the case of 59 many mighty works which were performed through him by God's doing, yet the splendor of so great virtue could not be hid, but surpassingly kindled others to a great faith.

It happened that a certain woman of Juvao was vexed by long continued sickness and lay half-dead, and the burial was already prepared.

Her relatives, in mournful silence, repressed funereal lamentations at the voice of faith, and laid the sick woman's now almost lifeless body at the door of the saint's cell.

When the man of God saw the entrance closed by the bed set against it, he said to them, "Why have ye done this? I know myself utterly unworthy.

O that I may deserve to find pardon for my sins! Quintanis 57 was a municipality of Raetia Secunda, 58 situated on the bank of the Danube.

Near by on the other side ran a small river named Businca. Often the Businca, when swollen in time of flood by the overflow of the Danube, covered some spaces of the castle, because the latter stood on the plain.

Moreover the inhabitants of this place had built outside the walls a wooden church which overhung the water, and was supported by posts driven into the riverbed and by forked props.

In place of a flooring it had a slippery platform of boards, which were covered by the overflowing water whenever it rose above the banks.

Coming at a time of drought, he asked why the boards were seen bare and uncovered. The neighbors answered that the frequent inundations of the river always washed away anything that was spread on the boards.

But he said, "In Christ's name, let a pavement be now laid upon the boards; from henceforth ye shall see the river restrained by the command of heaven.

Moreover it happened that there died a highly venerable priest of Quintanis, Silvinus by name. The bier was placed in the church, and, according to the custom, they passed the night watching and singing psalms.

When the dawn was already breaking, the man of God asked all the weary priests and deacons 62 to go away for a little while, that after the toil of watching they might refresh themselves somewhat by sleep.

When they had gone out, the man of God asked the doorkeeper, Maternus by name, whether all had departed as he had bidden. When Maternus answered that all had gone out, "Not so," he said, "but there is a woman hiding here.

But the soldier of Christ, the Lord revealing it to him, said, "Some one is lurking here. Therefore the doorkeeper reproved her: Then, as the priest ended the prayer, the saint thus addressed the corpse: And again he 63 speaketh unto him, "Shall we ask the Lord that he deign to grant thee still in this life to us, his servants?

Now this event was so concealed at the earnest request of Saint Severinus, that no one knew of it until after his death. Yet I learned what I have reported from the account of Marcus the subdeacon and Maternus the janitor.

For the priest and the deacon, witnesses of this great miracle, are known to have died before the saint, to whom they had sworn to reveal to no one that which they had seen.

Not only did the grace of Christ make Saint Severinus rich in such gifts, but also from his innate goodness he took so great care of captives and the needy that almost all the poor through all the towns and castles 64 were fed by his activity.

To these he ministered with such cheerful concern, that he believed himself to be filled or to abound in all good things only when he saw that the needy had their bodily wants supplied.

Though he himself was not in the least enfeebled by repeated week-long fasts, yet he felt himself afflicted by the hunger of the unfortunate.

When they saw his pious largess to the poor, great numbers, although they were straitened with hunger under the harsh sway of the barbarians, faithfully gave the poor the tithes of their crops.

Though this commandment is familiar to all from the law, 60 yet these observed it with 65 grateful devotion, as though they were hearing it given by the lips of an angel present among them.

The cold, too, was felt by the man of God only in the nakedness of the poor. Indeed, he had received from God the special gift of remaining vigorous and active, hardened by his wonderful abstinence, in a land of bitter cold.

We spoke of tithes for the support of the poor. He was wont to send letters, urging the communities of Noricum 61 also to give them. This became their custom, and once, when they had sent to him a quantity of clothing to be distributed, he asked the attendants whether the town of Tiburnia 62 was sending a like contribution.

They answered that men from that place also would soon arrive. But the man of God signified that they should not come, and foretold that the offering which they had delayed must be made to the barbarians.

Accordingly, not long after the citizens of Tiburnia were beleaguered by the Goths, and fought them with varying fortune; and under the 66 terms of peace, which they obtained with difficulty, they presented to the enemy, among other things, the largess, already collected, which they had delayed to send to the servant of God.

Likewise the citizens of the town of Lauriacum, 64 in spite of many warning exhortations from Saint Severinus, had delayed offering to the poor the tithes of their crops.

They were pinched with hunger, and the yellow of the ripening harvest showed that relief was at hand. But when a destructive rust unexpectedly appeared, and was on the point of damaging the crops, they immediately came and cast themselves down before Saint Severinus, and acknowledged the punishment of their stubbornness.

But the soldier of 67 Christ comforted the feeble ones with spiritual words, saying, "Had ye offered tithes for the poor, not only would ye enjoy an everlasting reward, but ye would also be able to abound in present comforts.

But since ye rebuke your sin by your own confession, I promise you, by the goodness of the Lord, that this mighty rust shall cause no damage whatever; only let not your faith waver any more.

Then, as was his wont, he urged that a fast be proclaimed. When this had ended, a gentle rain relieved from danger the harvest of which they had despaired.

Batavis 66 is a town lying between two rivers, the Aenus and the Danube. There Saint Severinus had established after his wonted fashion a cell for a few monks, because he himself not infrequently came thither at the request of the citizens; particularly on 68 account of the constant incursions of the Alamanni, whose king, Gibuldus, greatly honored and loved him.

Now on a certain occasion Gibuldus came eagerly to see him. That the king might not encumber Ba-tavis by his visit, the saint went out to meet him, and addressed the king with so great firmness, that Gibuldus began to tremble violently before him, and declared to his armies, as he withdrew, that never, in war or in any peril, had he been smitten with such trembling.

And when he gave to the servant of God his choice, to give what command he would, the most pious teacher asked that the king should pay attention rather to his own best interests, restrain his nation from laying waste the Roman territory, and set free without ransom the captives his followers had made.

Then the king appointed that Severinus should direct some one from his own followers to bring this work more speedily to completion.

Forthwith Deacon Amantius was dispatched, and followed in the king's path; but, though he watched before his gates many days, he could not secure an audience.

As he was turning back, very sorrowful because his appointed task had not been accomplished, a man appeared in the form of Saint Severinus, who accosted him menacingly, and, as he stood in utter terror, bade him follow.

As he followed in fear and excitement, he came to the king's door; and immediately the guide that had gone before him vanished from his wondering eyes.

But the king's messenger asked the deacon whence he came and what he wished. He told his 69 errand briefly, gave letters to the king, and received others from him, and returned home.

He conveyed back about seventy captives, and moreover brought the pleasing promise of the king, that when he had diligently searched through the province, he would send back all the captives that were to be found there.

Later Saint Lucillus the priest was selected to attend to this matter, and recovered from captivity a great number of unfortunates. So long as the Roman dominion lasted, soldiers were maintained in many towns at the public expense to guard the boundary wall.

The troop at Batavis, however, held out. One day, as Saint Severinus was reading in his cell, he suddenly closed the book and began to sigh greatly and to weep.

He ordered the bystanders to 70 run out with haste to the river, which he declared was in that hour besprinkled with human blood; and straightway word was brought that the bodies of the soldiers mentioned above had been brought to land by the current of the river.

One Paulinus, a priest, had come to Saint Severinus, whose fame was extending. When he wished to return home, Severinus said to him, "Hasten, venerable priest; for, beloved, the episcopal dignity shall speedily adorn thee, even if, as we believe, thou opposest the desire of the peoples.

For the citizens of Tiburnia, which is the metropolis of Noricum, compelled him to assume the preeminence of the highest priesthood.

For a church beyond the walls of Batavis, in a place named Bojotro, 70 across the Aenus, where Severinus had built a cell for a few monks, relics of martyrs were sought.

When the priests were accordingly pushing themselves forward that they might be sent to fetch relics, 71 Saint Severinus uttered this warning: Meantime the citizens of Batavis approached the saint, and besought him to go to Feba, prince of the Rugii, to ask permission for them to trade.

He said to them, "The time of this town is at hand, that it remain deserted like the rest of the upper castles and uninhabited.

Why, then, is it necessary to provide merchandise for places where in future no merchant can appear? A certain priest, filled with the spirit of Satan, added, "Go, saint, I beg, go quickly, that for a little space thy departure may give us rest from fastings and vigils.

For open scurrility is a witness of hidden sins. When the saint was asked by the brethren why he was weeping thus, "I see," he said, "a heavy blow that in my absence shall straightway befall this place; and, with groaning I must say it, the shrine of Christ shall so overflow with human blood, that even this place must be desecrated.

Therefore he went down the Danube by ship a hundred miles and more to his old monastery, larger than the others, near the walls of Favianis.

As he was going down the river, Hunimund, 72 accompanied by a 73 few barbarians, attacked the town of Batavis, as the saint had foretold, and, while almost all the inhabitants were occupied in the harvest, put to death forty men of the town who had remained for a guard.

The priest who had spoken sacrilegious words in the baptistery against the servant of Christ fled for refuge to the same place, and was slain by the pursuing barbarians.

For in vain did the offender against God and enemy of truth seek protection in the place where he had so impudently transgressed. Once while Saint Severinus was reading the Gospel in the monastery at Favianis, after offering prayer he arose, ordered a skiff to be instantly prepared for him, and said to the astonished bystanders, "Blessed be the name of the Lord; we must go to meet the relics of the sainted martyrs.

The servant of Christ was pointed out to 74 him; and immediately and as a suppliant he offered him the relics of Saint John the Baptist, which he had kept by him for a long time.

The servant of God received the relics with the veneration they deserved; and so the blessing of Saint John was bestowed unasked upon the church, as he had foretold, and Severinus consecrated the relics by the hands of the priests.

There was a town called Joviaco, 73 twenty miles and more distant from Batavis. Thither the man of God, impressed as usual by a revelation, sent a singer of the church, Moderatus by name; admonishing that all the inhabitants should quit that place without delay.

For imminent destruction threatened them if they despised his commands. Therefore yet again he sent one unto them, a certain 75 man of Quintanis, to whom he said, weeping, "Make haste!

Declare unto them that if they stay there this night, they shall without delay be made captives! The servant of God said that he was in great sorrow over him, lest haply he might postpone obedience to the saving command, and so be exposed to the threatening destruction.

Accordingly the messenger of the man of God went and fulfilled his orders; and when the others in their unbelief hesitated, he did not tarry a moment, though the priest strove to keep him and wished to extend to him the courtesy of his hospitality.

That night the Heruli made a sudden, unexpected onslaught, sacked the town, and led most of the people into captivity.

They hanged the priest Maximianus on a cross. When the news came, the servant of God grieved sorely that his warnings had been disregarded.

Later a man from Noricum, Maximus by name, came to visit the servant of God, as was his frequent custom. Pursuant to their established friendship, he tarried some days in the monastery of the saint.

Then Severinus informed him by his oracles that his country was about to experience a sudden and heavy disaster. Maximus took a letter addressed to Saint 76 Paulinus the bishop, and in all haste returned home.

Accordingly Paulinus, prepared by the contents of the letter, wrote to all the castles of his diocese, and strongly admonished them to meet the coming mischief and disaster by a three days' fast, as the letter of the man of God had indicated.

They obeyed these commands, and the fast was ended, when lo, a vast multitude of the Alamanni, minions of Death, laid everything waste.

But the castles felt no danger. The trusty cuirass of fasting, and praiseworthy humility of heart, with the aid of the prophet, had armed them boldly against the fierceness of the enemy.

Later, a leper from the territory of Milan came to Saint Severinus, attracted by his fame. When he prayed and begged to be made whole, Severinus decreed a fast, and commended the leper to his monks; and through the work of God's grace he was forthwith cleansed.

When he had been made whole and was advised to return to his country, he threw himself at the feet of the saint, imploring that he be not compelled to go home again; desiring that he might escape from the leprosy of sin as he had from that of the flesh, and might close his life in the same place with a praiseworthy end.

The man of God greatly admired his pious purpose, and with fatherly command instructed a few monks to practise frequent 77 fasts with him and to continue in uninterrupted prayer, in order that the Lord might grant to him those things which were meet.

Fortified by so great remedies, within the space of two months the man was freed from the fetters of mortal life. At the same time the inhabitants of the town of Quintanis, exhausted by the incessant incursions of the Alamanni, left their own abodes and removed to the town of Batavis.

But their place of refuge did not remain hidden from the Alamanni: But Saint Severinus applied himself vigorously to prayer, and encouraged the Romans in manifold ways by examples of salvation.

He foretold that the present foes should indeed by God's aid be overcome; but that after the victory those who despised his admonitions should perish.

Therefore the Romans in a body, strengthened by the prediction of the saint, and in the hope of the promised victory, drew up against the Alamanni in order of battle, fortified less with material arms than by the prayers of the saint.

The Alamanni were overthrown in the conflict and fled. The man of God addressed the victors as follows. So gather together and go down with me to the town of Lauriacum.

But when the people of Batavis hesitated to leave their native soil, he added, "Although that town also, whither we go, must be abandoned as speedily as possible before the inrushing barbarism, yet let us now in like manner depart from this place.

As he impressed such things upon their minds, most of the people followed him. A few indeed proved stubborn, nor did the scorners escape the hostile sword.

For that same week the Thuringi stormed the town; and of those who notwithstanding the prohibition of the man of God remained there, a part were butchered, the rest led off into captivity and made to pay the penalty for their scorn.

After the destruction of the towns on the upper course of the Danube, all the people who had obeyed the warnings of Saint Severinus removed into the town of Lauriacum.

He warned them with incessant exhortations not to put trust in their own strength, but to apply themselves to prayers and fastings and almsgivings, and to be defended rather by the weapons of the spirit.

Moreover one day the man of God appointed that all the poor be gathered together in one church, that he might, as custom demanded, dispense oil to them: Accordingly a great throng of the needy assembled, as if for the sake of receiving the benediction.

No doubt the presence of this fluid, a costly food, swelled 80 the throng and the number of applicants. When the saint had finished the prayer, and made the sign of the cross, he uttered as usual, while all listened, the word of Holy Writ, "Blessed be the name of the Lord.

Now while the bystanders silently wondered at so great a blessing of God, one of them, whose name was Pientissimus, in amazement and great fear cried out, "My Lord!

This pot of oil increases, and overflows like a fountain! Straightway the servant of Christ cried out and said, "Brother, what hast thou done?

Thou hast hindered the advantage of many: After she had done this, and asked for yet more vessels from her sons, when she heard that there was not a vessel more, straightway the oil stayed.

At the same time Maximus of Noricum, of whom we have made mention above, kindled by the warmth of his faith, at midwinter, when the roads of that region are closed by the numbing cold, hastened to come to Saint Severinus.

It was an enterprise of rash temerity, or rather, as was afterwards manifest, of fearless devotion. He had hired many companions, to carry on their backs, for the benefit of the captives and the poor, a collection of clothing which the people of Noricum had piously given.

And when they despaired utterly of their lives, since no aid as they thought was at hand, the leader of the companions saw in his sleep a vision of the man of God standing and saying unto him, "Fear not; complete your journey.

He immediately disclosed the desired road, and for about two hundred miles, turning aside neither to the left nor to the right, showed a passable way.

For he went just far enough ahead of them so that his fresh track broke out a path. So, leading through the desert wilderness, the beast did not forsake the men who were bringing relief to the needy, but with the utmost possible friendliness conducted them as far as human habitations.

Then, having fulfilled his duty, he turned aside and departed: When the arrivals were announced to the servant of God, he said, "Blessed be the name of the Lord!

Let them enter, to whom a bear hath opened a way for their coming. The citizens of the town of Lauriacum and the fugitives from the upper castles appointed scouts to explore the suspected places, and guarded against the enemy, so far as by human care they could.

The servant of God, instructed by divine inspiration, arranged beforehand with prophetic mind that they should bring inside the city wall all their meagre property, in order 83 that the foemen in their deadly foray, meeting with no human life, might be promptly forced by hunger to abandon their frightful and cruel designs.

This he earnestly entreated for four days. When the fourth day already verged toward evening, he sent a monk, Valens by name, to Saint Constantius, bishop of the town, 82 and said to the others who remained, "Set the customary guards at the walls tonight, and keep a stricter watch; and beware of a sudden and treacherous assault by the foe.

But the servant of Christ did not cease to forewarn the hesitant, and cried out with a loud voice, affirming that they would be taken captive that same night unless they faithfully obeyed his commands.

He often repeated the words, "If I shall be proved a liar, stone me. At the beginning of the night they sang psalms, as they were wont, and afterwards the men gathered in great numbers and commenced their watch.

Then a nearby haystack, accidentally fired by a porter's torch, illuminated, but did not burn the city. When this happened, every one howled and shouted, and the enemy concealed in the woods and forests were 84 terrified by the sudden brightness and the shouting, and, thinking themselves detected, remained quiet.

Schwarzenbruck hat ein Epilepsiezentrum. Zum Tag der Epilepsie Beratung durch Spezialisten. Epilepsie im Wandel der Zeit.

Zum Gedenken an Jean Aicardi. Stellungnahme zum Beschluss des G-BA. Wichtigstes Instrument zur Beantwortung beruflicher Eignungsfragen bei Epilepsie.

Epilepsie - heraus aus dem Schatten. Hermann Doose Trauer um Prof. International Epilepsy Day Fotowettbewerb: INES Einladung zur 8.

Valproat-Hinweis Patienten-Erinnerungskarte zu Valproat. Definition Epilepsie Internationale Liga stellt aktualisierte Klassifikation vor. But he is obviously a Eutychian, not a Nestorian, unless the mistake is in Cod.

Read the treatise of Theodoret of Cyrrhus Against Heresies, from the time of Simon 1 down to those which sprang up in his own age.

It is dedicated to a certain Sporacius, 2 who was fond of hearing about such matters. It goes down to Nestorius and his heresy, on which he pours forth unmitigated censure, and even farther, to the heresy of Eutyches.

In the last of the five books which the treatise contains, he gives a summary of divine and orthodox doctrine compared with idle heretical talk, showing that it is not to be confounded with the latter, but is pure and irreprehensible.

The style is clear and free from redundancies. Read Appian's 1 Roman History, in three parts and twenty-four books. The first of these, the founder and oekist of the city, although his rule was rather patriarchal than tyrannical, was nevertheless assassinated, or, according to others, disappeared from view.

The second, in no way inferior as a ruler to his predecessor, or perhaps even his superior, died at the age of The third was struck by lightning.

The fourth succumbed to disease. The fifth was murdered by shepherds. The sixth was also murdered. The seventh was deposed and driven out of the city for his tyranny.

After this, the monarchy was abolished, and its powers transferred to consuls. Such is the contents of the first book, which is entitled The Book of the Kings.

The second book, entitled Italica, gives an account of the history of Italy with the exception of that part which is situated on the Ionian Sea.

The following book, Samnitica, relates the wars of the Romans with the Samnites, 4 a powerful nation and an enemy difficult to conquer whom it took the Romans eighty years to subdue, and the other nations who fought on their side.

The fourth, Celtica, relates the wars of the Romans with the Celts Gauls. The remaining books are similarly named. The fifth contains the History of Sicily and the other Islands, the sixth gives an account of Iberian affairs, the seventh of the Hannibalic wars, the eighth of Libyan affairs dealing with Carthage and Numidia , the ninth of Macedonian affairs, the tenth of Greek and Ionian affairs, the eleventh of Syrian and Parthian affairs, the twelfth of the Mithradatic war.

Up tp this point the relations and wars of the Romans with foreign nations are set forth in this order. The books that follow describe the civil wars and disturbances amongst the Romans themselves.

They are entitled the first and second books of the Civil Wars and so on down to the ninth, which is the twenty-first book of the whole.

The twenty-second book is called Hekatontaetia the history of one hundred years , the twenty-third, Dacica, on Dacian affairs, the twenty-fourth, Arabica, on Arabian affairs.

Such are the divisions of the entire work. The account of the civil wars contains first the war between Marius and Sulla, then that between Pompey and Julius Caesar, after their rivalry took the form of violent hostilities, until fortune favoured Caesar and Pompey was defeated and put to flight.

Next, it describes the proceedings of Antony and Octavius Caesar also known as Augustus against the murderers of Julius Caesar, at the time when many distinguished Romans were put to death without a trial.

Lastly, the desperate conflict between Antony and Augustus, accompanied by terrible slaughter, in which victory declared for Augustus. Antony, deserted by his allies, was driven a fugitive to Egypt, where he died by his own hand.

The last book of the Civil Wars describes how Egypt came into the power of the Romans, and how Augustus became the sole ruler of Rome.

The history begins with Aeneas, the son of Anchises, the son of Capys, who lived in the time of the Trojan war. After the capture of Troy Aeneas fled, and after much wandering landed on the coast of Italy at a place called Laurentum, where his camp is shown, and the coast is called after him Troja.

Faunus, son of Mars, who was at the time ruler of the original Italian inhabitants, gave his daughter Lavinia in marriage to Aeneas and a piece of land stades in circumference, on which Aeneas built a city and called it Lavinium after his wife Lavinia.

Three years later, Faunus died, and Aeneas, who succeeded to the throne by right of kinship, gave the aborigines 5 the name of Latins from his father-in-law Latinus Faunus.

After another three years, Aeneas was killed in battle against the Rutulians of Tyrrhenia, to whose king Lavinia had formerly been betrothed. He was succeeded by Euryleon, surnamed Ascanius, the son of Aeneas by Creusa the daughter of Priam, who was his wife at Troy.

According to others, however, the Ascanius who succeeded him was his son by Lavinia. Ascanius died four years after he had founded the city of Alba with a body of settlers from Lavinium, and Silvius became king.

His descendants were Capys, Capetus, Tiberinus, and Agrippa, said to be the father of Romulus, who was killed by lightning, leaving a son Aventinus, who had a son named Procas.

All these are said to have been surnamed Silvius. Procas had two children, the elder named Numitor, the younger. When the elder succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, the younger got possession of it by force and crime, killed his brother's son Egestus, and made his daughter Rhea a priestess, so that she might not have children.

But Numitor's mildness and gentleness saved him from the plot against his life. Silvia broke her vows and became pregnant, 6 and was seized by Amulius for punishment, her two sons being given to some shepherds to be thrown into the river Tiber near at hand.

The infants, Romulus and Romus, 7 were descended from Aeneas on the mother's side; the name of their father was unknown. As already stated, the history begins with a rapid account of Aeneas and his descendants; but from the time of Romulus, the oekist 9 of the city, it gives full details of events to the reign of Augustus, and, here and there, as late as the time of Trajan.

Appian was an Alexandrian by birth, and at first an advocate at Rome, being subsequently raised to the dignity of a procurator 10 under the emperors.

His style is dry and free from redundancies; as an historian, he is trustworthy to the best of his ability, and an excellent authority on military matters; the speeches which he introduces are admirably calculated to encourage soldiers when dispirited, to restrain them when too ardent, to express and faithfully represent the emotions and feelings.

He flourished in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. Of the twenty-four books of the Roman History, which Photius had before him, only eleven besides the Preface are completely preserved; the others are entirely lost, or only fragments.

Read Arrian's 1 Parthica History of Parthia in seventeen books. He has also written the best account of the campaigns of Alexander of Macedon.

Another work of his is Bithynica History of Bithynia , relating the affairs of his native country. He also wrote an Alanica History of the Alani.

He considers the Parthians to have been a Scythian race, which had long been under the yoke of Macedonia, and revolted, at the time of the Persian rebellion, 3 for the following reason.

Arsaces and Tiridates were two brothers, descendants of Arsaces, the son of Phriapetes. These two brothers, with five accomplices, slew Pherecles, who had been appointed satrap of Parthia by Antiochus Theos, 4 to avenge an insult offered to one of them; they drove out the Macedonians, set up a government of their own, and became so powerful that they were a match for the Romans in war, and sometimes even were victorious over them.

Arrian further relates that during the reign of Sesostris, king of Egypt, and landysus, king of Scythia, the Parthians removed from their own country, Scythia, to the land which they now inhabit.

The emperor Trajan reduced them to submission but left them free under a treaty, and appointed a king over them. This Arrian, called the "young Xenophon," a philosopher and one of the pupils of Epictetus, 5 flourished during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Antoninus.

Owing to his remarkable learning he was entrusted with various offices of state, and was finally promoted to the consulship. He was also the author of other works: His style is dry, and he is a genuine imitator of Xenophon.

It is said that he was also the author of other works, but they have not come into my hands. Certainly he does not lack rhetorical skill and power.

He was born at Nicomedia in Bithynia, studied philosophy under Epictetus and distinguished himself as a soldier. He was appointed governor of Cappadocia in , and consul in He spent the rest of his life in his native city, where he held the lifelong office of priest of Demeter and Kore.

In addition to the works here mentioned, he was the author of: A Voyage round the Euxine, a treatise on Tactics, the Order of Battle against the Alani defeated by him while governor of Cappadocia , on the Chase, and an account of India, perhaps a continuation of the Anabasis the account of Alexander's campaigns , so named after the Anabasis of his model Xenophon.

The more natural rendering; would seem to be: Read the proceedings of the synod 1 that was unlawfully summoned against St. The presidents were Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, Acacius of Beroea, Antiochus of Ptolemais, Severian of Gabala, and Cyrinus of Chalcedon, who were bitterly hostile to Chrysostom, and constituted themselves judges, accusers, and witnesses.

There were thirteen sessions: Owing to the pressure of other business, however, the deposition of Heraclides could not be ratified.

His accuser was Macarius, bishop of Magnesia. The open enemy and chief accuser of Chrysostom was his deacon John. He first charged Chrysostom with having wronged him by ejecting him for having beaten his own servant Eulalius; the second charge was that a certain monk named John had been flogged by order of Chrysostom, dragged along, and put in chains like those possessed; the third, that he had sold much valuable Church property; the fourth, that he had sold the marble which Nectarius had set aside for decorating the church of St.

Anastasia; the fifth, that he had reviled the clergy as dishonourable, corrupt, useless in themselves, 2 and worthless; the sixth, that he had called St.

Such were the charges against this holy man. He was four times summoned, but refused to appear. He declared that, if the synod would remove his open enemies from the list of judges, he was ready to appear and defend himself against any charges brought against him; if they refused to do so, no matter how many times they summoned him, it would be of no avail.

The first and second counts were then investigated, after which the synod proceeded to deal with the case of the bishops Heraclides and Palladius of Helenopolis.

The monk John, mentioned by the deacon John in the second charge against Chrysostom, presented a memorial accusing Heraclides of being a follower of Origen, and of having been arrested at Caesarea in Palestine for the theft of the clothes of Aquilinus the deacon.

Notwithstanding this, he declared, Chrysostom had consecrated him bishop of Epliesus. He further accused Chrysostom himself, whom he blamed for all that he had suffered at the hands of Serapion and Chrysostom owing to the Origenists.

After this the ninth and twenty-seventh charges were investigated. Then bishop Isaac again charged Heraclides with being a follower of Origen, with whom the most holy Epiphanius would hold no communion either at prayers or meals.

He also presented a memorial containing the following charges against Chrysostom: Of these charges the first, having been already discussed, did not seem to require further examination, but the second and seventh, and then the third of the charges brought by deacon John, were investigated.

In this last the archpresbyter Arsacius, the successor of Chrysostom, and the presbyters Atticus and Elpidius somehow or other came forward as witnesses against that holy man.

They and the presbyter Acacius also gave witness against him on the fourth charge. After these had been investigated, the above-mentioned presbyters, with Eudaemon and Onesimus, demanded that the synod should hasten its decision.

Accordingly, Paul, bishop of Heraclea, called upon all to give their vote. The members present, forty-five in all, then recorded their opinion, beginning with bishop Gymnasius and ending with Theophilus of Alexandria.

It was unanimously decided that Chrysostom should be deprived of his episcopate. A letter on his deposition was sent on the part of the synod to the clergy of Constantinople, and a report was made to the emperors.

Gerontius, Faustinus, and Eugnomonius also presented three petitions, complaining that they had been unjustly deprived of their episcopates by Chrysostom.

The emperors in reply sent an imperial rescript to the synod. These were the proceedings of the twelfth session; the thirteenth, as has been stated, was occupied with the case of Heraclides, bishop of Ephesus.

See Hefele, Conziliengeschichte Eng. The name was also given to the Copiatae or Fossarii grave-diggers, undertakers , who had to bury the poor for nothing.

As used by monks, it may possibly be identical with the scapular. Ducange explains it by Conciliabulum as specially used of the synod of the Oak.

Read the nine books of the History of Herodotus, 1 in name and number identical with the nine Muses. He may be considered the best representative of the Ionic, as Thucydides of the Attic dialect.

He is fond of old wives' tales and digressions, pervaded by charming sentiments, which, however, sometimes obscure the due appreciation of history and its correct and proper character.

Truth does not allow her accuracy to be impaired by fables or excessive digressions from the subject. He begins his history with Cyrus, the first king of Persia, describing his birth, education, manhood, arid reign, and goes down to the reign of Xerxeshis expedition against the Athenians, and subsequent retreat.

Xerxes was the third who succeeded Cyrus, the first being Cambyses, the second Darius. Smerdis the Magian is not reckoned among these, as a tyrant who craftily usurped the throne that did not belong to him.

Darius was succeeded by his son Xerxes, with whom the history concludes, although it does not go as far as the end of his reign. Herodotus himself, according to the evidence of Diodorus Siculus, 2 flourished during these times.

It is said that, when he read his work, 3 Thucydides, then very young, who was present with his father at the reading, burst into tears.

Whereupon Herodotus exclaimed, "Oh, Olorus! It also contains digressions on the early history and manners and customs of different peoples.

It is curious that Photius has not devoted more attention to him. These three speeches and nine letters are said to be his only genuine works; for which reason the orations were sometimes called the three Graces, from their number and the charm of their style, and the letters the nine Muses.

Another oration, the Delian law, was known under his name; but Caecilius 2 denies its genuineness and ascribes it to another Aeschines, an Athenian and contemporary.

Aeschines was one of the "ten" Attic orators. He was accused by Demosthenes of having misconducted an embassy, 3 but was not convicted, since the demagogue Eubulus, in whose service Aeschines had formerly been, 4 sided with him against Demosthenes, and caused the jury to rise before Demosthenes had finished his speech.

Subsequently, when he attacked the proposal of Ctesiphon on behalf of Demosthenes as illegal, 5 having himself settled the amount of the fine he was prepared to pay if he did not make good the charge, he failed to do so, and left his country.

He first set out for Asia, intending to seek refuge with Alexander, the son of Philip, who was then on his Asiatic expedition, but when he heard of his death and that his successors were quarrelling amongst themselves, he sailed to Rhodes, where he remained for some time, giving young men lessons in rhetoric.

When his admirers were at a loss to understand how so great an orator could have been defeated by Demosthenes, he replied, "If you had heard that beast meaning Demosthenes , you would not be surprised.

In his old age he removed to Samos, where he died. He was of humble origin; 6 his father was Atrometus; his mother Glaucothea, a priestess.

He had two brothers, Aphobetus and Philochares. At first, being possessed of a loud voice, he became a third-rate actor; then he was copying-clerk to the Council; and soon afterwards came forward as a public speaker.

He belonged to the philippizing party at Athens, and was consequently a political opponent of Demosthenes. He is said to have attended Plato's lectures, and to have been the pupil of Antalcidas, 7 statements which are supported by the grandeur of his language and the dignity of his inventions.

His language appears natural and extemporaneous, and does not create so much admiration for the writer's art as for his natural gifts.

Abundant proofs of his cleverness and ability are to be found in his orations. In his choice of words he aims at simplicity and distinctness, and in the structure of his periods he is neither so feeble as Isocrates, nor so compressed and concise as Lysias, while in verve and energy he is not inferior to Demosthenes.

He employs figures of thought and speech, not to create the impression of using artistic language, but in conformity with the necessities of the subject.

Hence his style appears direct and straightforward, well adapted for speaking in public and for private conversation; for he does not make constant use of proofs and arguments, and is not over elaborate.

Aeschines, 10 the son of Lysanias, called Socraticus, is reckoned by Phrynichus and others one of the greatest orators, and his speeches as models of Attic style, only second to those of its best representatives.

He had a varied career as secretary, third-rate actor, orator, and statesman. At first an opponent of Philip of Macedon, he was induced by bribery to favour his cause.

After his unsuccessful attack on Ctesiphon for proposing to bestow a crown on Demosthenes for his public services, he retired, first to Ephesus, then to Rhodes, and lastly to Samos, where he died.

The three speeches have come down to us; the letters are lost. He wrote a number of rhetorical, grammatical, and historical works, the chief being On the Character of the Ten Attic Orators, but none of them has come down to us.

Eubulus was a distinguished financier, and a bitter opponent of Demosthenes. The sense required is given in the translation. He lived in the time of the emperor Hadrian.

He spent some time at the court of Dionysius the Younger of Syracuse, and then settled in Athens and wrote speeches for the law-courts.

He also composed a number of Socratic dialogues, of which seven were supposed to be genuine. The three that pass under his name and some letters are certainly not by him.

Constantine was sent by his father to Diocletian in Nicomedia to be educated. At that time Maximin, 4 governor of Asia Minor, who happened to be there, determined to lay a plot against the youth and set him to fight with a savage lion.

But Constantine overcame and slew the beast, and having discovered the plot, took refuge with his father, after whose death he succeeded to the throne.

Soon after his accession, he subdued the Celts and Germans, neighbouring and barbarous nations. Having learnt that Maxentius, who had made himself master of Rome after Maximin, 5 treated his subjects with cruelty and brutality, he marched against him, to punish him for his conduct.

He was speedily victorious and put his enemy to flight, who fell into the pit which he had prepared for others and met the death which he had designed for his enemies.

The Romans cut off his head, hung it on a spear, and carried it through the city. This part of the empire with joyful eagerness submitted to Constantine.

In the meantime, Maximin who had plotted against Constantine had died and was succeeded in his government by Licinius. Constantine, hearing that he also treated his subjects with cruelty and inhumanity, unable to tolerate such brutality towards those of the same race, marched against him, to put an end to his tyranny and replace it by constitutional government.

Licinius, being informed of the expedition, became alarmed, attempted to disguise his cruelty under the cloak of humanity, and took an oath that he would treat his subjects kindly and would strictly keep his promise.

Constantine accordingly for the time abandoned his expedition. Soon afterwards, however, since the wicked cannot remain quiet, Licinius broke his oath and abandoned himself to every kind of villainy.

Whereupon Constantine attacked and defeated him in several great battles and shut him up and besieged him in Nicomedia, whence he approached Constantine in the garb of a suppliant.

His kingdom was, taken away from him and bestowed upon Constantine, who thus secured and became sole ruler of the different parts of the great empire, which had long desired an emperor worthy of it.

He inherited his father's kingdom and that of Rome after the overthrow of Maximin, 6 and obtained possession of Greece, Macedonia, and Asia Minor by the deposition of Licinius.

Being thus sole master of a united empire, he founded Byzantium and called it after his own name. Praxagoras says that although Constantine was a heathen, in virtue, goodness, and prosperity he far excelled all his predecessors on the throne.

With these words the history concludes. Praxagoras, according to his own statement, was twenty-two years old when he wrote this history.

He was also the author of two books on The Kings of Athens, written when he was nineteen, and six books on Alexander King of Macedon, written when he was thirty-one.

His style is clear and agreeable, but somewhat wanting in vigour. He writes in the Ionic dialect. Both works mentioned by Photius are entirely lost.

Read the History of Procopius 1 the rhetorician in eight books. He relates the wars of the Romans in the reign of Justinian against the Vandals, Persians, and Goths, chiefly conducted by Belisarius, whose intimate friend the writer was and whom he accompanied on his campaigns, setting down in writing events of which he was an eye-witness.

The following is the contents of the first book. Arcadius, emperor of the Romans, in his will appointed Yezdegerd, king of Persia, guardian of his son Theodosius.

Yezdegerd accepted the trust, fulfilled his duties as guardian conscientiously and kept his ward's throne intact.

On the death of Yezdegerd, Vararanes his successor made war against the Romans, but after Anatolius, master-general of the East, had been sent by Theodosius on an embassy to Persia, he concluded a treaty and returned home.

After this Perozes, king of Persia, who succeeded another Yezdegerd, son of Vararanes, waged war on the Huns called Ephthalites or "White" Huns from their complexions.

They are not ill-looking and do not resemble the other Huns. They do not lead a wild or nomadic life, but enjoy the protection of the laws under their kings.

They were the neighbours of Persia on the north, which induced Perozes to invade their territory in order to settle the question of boundaries.

The Ephthalites cunningly led him into difficult country, from which he barely escaped after concluding a disgraceful peace.

He was forced to do homage to the king of the Ephthalites, and was only allowed to depart on taking an oath that he would never attack them again.

Subsequently, however, he broke his word and, having again made war upon them, was ignominiously destroyed together with his whole army, which fell into pits and ditches cunningly prepared by the enemy.

He died in the twenty-fourth year of his reign, on which occasion the famous pearl which he wore in his right ear was lost.

Perozes was succeeded by his youngest son Cabades, 2 who was accused of violating the laws and imprisoned by the Persians in the fortress of Lethe.

Having escaped with the assistance of his wife he took refuge with the Ephthalites, whose ruler betrothed him to one of his daughters and lent him a large army, with which he marched against the Persians and recovered his throne without a fight.

His brother Biases, 3 who was ruling in his stead, was abandoned by his soldiers, seized, and blinded by boiling oil poured into his open eyes, in accordance with a long-established Persian custom.

An account of the dispute between Pacurius, king of Persia, and Arsaces, king of Armenia, and the advice hostile to Arsaces, given by the magi to Pacurius, follows next.

It seems probable, however, that this story is fictitious. The above-mentioned Cabades, who was heavily in debt to the Ephthalites, endeavoured to obtain a loan from Anastasius, but met with a refusal.

Thereupon Cabades, without any further excuse, suddenly overran Armenia and besieged Amida. When he was on the point of abandoning the siege in despair, a gross insult on the part of some women among the besieged induced him to turn back and continue operations.

He attacked with furious impetuosity, took the city by storm, and carried off the inhabitants as slaves. A large number of them were subsequently released without ransom, and treated with great kindness by Anastasius.

Anastasius, hearing that Amida was besieged, sent a very large force against the Persians, under four commanders Areobindus, master-general of the East son-in-law of Olybrius, the former emperor of the West , Celer, captain of the imperial household, Patricius the Phrygian, and his own nephew Hypatius.

With them were associated Justin, who succeeded Anastasius, and many other experienced soldiers. It is said that so large an army had never been brought into the field against the Persians, but owing to its delay in arriving, the city was taken; further, there was no unity of operation and the different detachments acted independently, with the result that they were ignominiously defeated with heavy loss.

At last they reached Amida and besieged the city, but while they wasted time, the Persians within, who were in great straits, concluded a seven years' treaty, which was arranged by Celer and Asperedes as representatives of Persia and Rome.

Mount Taurus in Cilicia first passes through Cappadocia, Armenia, Persarmenia, Albania, Iberia, and all the other independent countries which had become subject to Persia.

Just over the frontiers of Iberia there is a narrow path about fifty stades in length, ending in a steep and inaccessible height; there is apparently no way through, except by means of a natural exit which looks as if it had been made by the hand of man, called in ancient times the Caspian gate.

Beyond this gate there are plains suitable for riding, and full of natural springs, and there is an extensive tract of gently-sloping country which provides an excellent pasturage for horses; it is nearly all inhabited by Huns as far as the Palus Maeotis.

Alexander, the son of Philip, perceiving this, built gates there and erected a fortress. During the reign of Anastasius, this fortress was occupied by a Hun named Ambazuces, a friend of the Romans and Anastasius, to whom he offered to hand over control of the gates.

After the death of Ambazuces, Cabades forcibly ejected his sons and took possession of the gates. Thereupon Anastasius, after the treaty had been concluded with Cabades, built a stronghold in the neighbourhood of Daras, in spite of the objections of the Persians, and also another city in Armenia, on the frontiers of Persarmenia, which was formerly called Theodosiupolis, since Theodosius had bestowed upon it the rank of a city instead of a village.

On the death of Anastasius, although many of his kinsmen were worthy to succeed him, they were rejected and Justin elected emperor. Soon after his accession, Cabades, in order to secure the throne for his youngest son Chosroes, wrote a letter to Justin proposing that he should adopt Chosroes.

Justin and his sister's son Justinian, the heir-presumptive, welcomed the proposal, but in consequence of the advice of Proclus the quaestor, who argued that sons were the lawful heirs and successors of their fathers, 6 they changed their minds and the adoption was not ratified.

Subsequently, Seoses who had once saved the life of Cabades and Beodes 7 were sent by the Persians, and Rufinus and Hypatius by the Romans, to discuss the terms of peace and the adoption of Chosroes.

Seoses was accused of various offences by Beodes, tried by his countrymen and condemned to death. Rufinus also accused Hypatius to the emperor, who deprived him of his office.

The country between Bosporus and Cherson, which are a twenty days' journey apart, is inhabited by Hunnish tribes, who were formerly independent but had recently submitted to Justin, Cherson being the last city in Roman territory.

The Iberians also, being ill-treated by the Persians, declared themselves vassals of Justin together with their king, Gurgenes. This was the cause of war between the Romans and the Persians.

During his lifetime, Justin had made Justinian his partner in the empire, who, after his uncle's death, became sole ruler.

Belisarius and Sittas were the two army commanders under Justinian. Belisarius had been appointed to the command of the troops in Daras, when Procopius, the writer of this history, became his secretary.

When Justinian was sole emperor, Belisarius was made general of the East and ordered to undertake an expedition against the Persians. Perozes, the mirran , 8 had been appointed to the command of the Persian army by Cabades.

While both armies were encamped near Daras, Perozes sent a message to Belisarius, bidding him prepare a bath in the city, since he intended to bathe there on the following day.

The Romans accordingly prepared vigorously for battle. During the engagement, one Andrew, a Byzantine, a gymnastic instructor, master of a wrestling school in Constantinople, and one of the bath-attendants of Buzes who was associated with Belisarius in the command , when challenged to a duel, made his way through the ranks unnoticed, and defeated and slew his challenger.

Then the battle was discontinued. In a subsequent engagement, the Persians, having been completely defeated with heavy losses, decided not to risk any more pitched battles with the Romans, and both sides confined themselves to skirmishes.

Cabades then sent another army into Roman Armenia, consisting of Persarmenians, Sunites and Sabirites, under the command of Mermeroes.

Dorotheus, general of Armenia, and Sittas, who was in command of the whole army, joined battle, and although greatly inferior in numbers, defeated the Persians, who thereupon returned home.

The Romans then took possession of some Persian territory, including the district of Pharangium, the gold mines of which furnish a revenue for the king.

The Tzani formerly called Sani , an independent people who lived by plundering their neighbours, were defeated by Sittas and submitted to Rome.

They embraced Christianity, and were drafted into the ranks of the Roman army. After the defeat of both his armies, Cabades was at a loss what to do.

Then Alamundarus, chief of the Persian Saracens, an experienced and vigorous soldier, who for fifty years had harassed the Romans, suggested to him that he should attack Antioch, which was unprotected, and ravage the neighbouring country.

But Belisarius, hearing of his intention, set out with all speed against him with a force of Isaurians and Saracens, the latter under Arethas, a Saracen chief who was on the side of Rome.

Alamundarus and Azarethes retired in alarm, closely followed by Belisarius, who did not intend to force an engagement, but only pretended to be pursuing them.

But the soldiers reproached him, at first secretly and then openly, so that against his will he consented to give battle.

At first, after both sides had suffered heavily, the issue remained in doubt; but after the forces of Arethas and the Isaurians had given way, the Persians gained a decided victory.

Had not Belisarius dismounted and gone to the assistance of those who remained, they would all have been destroyed. Azarethes, the Persian commander, on his return received no thanks from Cabades for his victory.

For he himself had lost a large number of men, although the enemy's losses had been greater, and was accordingly regarded as disgraced.

Belisarius was recalled to Byzantium by Justinian to command the expedition against the Vandals, the protection of the East being entrusted to Sittas.

At this time, while the Persians were attacking the Romans, Cabades died and was succeeded by Chosroes. Hearing of this, the Romans sent Rufinus, Alexander, Thomas, and Hermogenes on an embassy to him, with offers to conclude an "endless peace" and also to pay a sum of centenars.

According to its terms, the Persians received the money agreed upon, and the district of Pharangium and the fortress of Bolon were restored to them; on the other hand, they abandoned the fortresses captured in Lazica, and exchanged Dagaris, an excellent soldier, for a Persian of rank.

Soon afterwards, their subjects conspired against both Chosroes. The Persians hated Chosroes as turbulent and restless, and were minded to bestow the crown on Cabades, the son of Chosroes' brother Zames.

But the plot was discovered, and Chosroes put to death Zames and his other brothers, and all who had taken part in it.

Thus the conspiracy was put down. Cabades the son of Zames, who was very young, escaped death through the prudence and compassion of Khanaranges Adergadunbades, 10 who was afterwards put to death on this account by Chosroes.

The people of Rome also rose against Justinian and declared Hypatius, the nephew of Anastasius, emperor against his will.

The rising had its origin in the circus factions. Justinian also had the support of his nephews Boraides and Justus.

In the same book Procopius gives an account of the avaricious and wily Tribonian, a Pamphylian by birth, who held the office of quaestor, and also of John, prefect of Cappadocia, notorious for villainy, greed, drunkenness, and vice of every kind.

He relates how Antonina, the wife of Belisarius, making use of John's daughter Euphemia, deceived him and convicted him of conspiring against the emperor; also how, when Eusebius, bishop of Cyzicus, was treacherously murdered, John, being suspected of the crime, was scourged and ignominiously banished.

The contents of the second book is as follows.

Then, when the customary psalm-singing was completed, and the hour of the sacrifice arrived, the man of God exhorted the priests and deacons that with all alacrity of heart they should join him in prayer to their common Lord; that the Lord might show the light of his knowledge to distinguish those guilty of sacrilege.

So while he was praying with them at great length, weeping much, and on his knees, the greater part of the tapers, those namely which the faithful had brought, were suddenly kindled by divine agency.

The rest remained unlighled, being the tapers of those who had been polluted by the aforesaid sacrilege, but, wishing to remain hidden, had denied it.

Thus those who had placed them were revealed by the divine test; and straightway they cried out, and by their behavior sufficiently betrayed the secrets of their hearts.

Convicted by the witness of their tapers, and by open confession, they bore witness to their own sacrilegious acts. O merciful power of the Creator, enkindling tapers and souls!

The fire was lighted in the tapers, and shone with reflected light in the emotions! The visible light melted into flames the substance of the wax, but the invisible light dissolved the hearts of the 55 penitents into tears!

Who would believe, that afterward those whom the error of sacrilege had ensnared were more distinguished for good works than those whose tapers had been divinely lighted?

At another time, in the territory of the same castle, swarms of locusts had settled, consuming the crops, and destroying everything with their noxious bite.

Therefore fulfill by meet works what ye teach, that ye may readily escape the evil of the present time.

Let no one go out to his field, as if concerned to oppose the locusts by human effort; lest the divine wrath be yet more provoked. Every age and sex, even such as could not form the words, offered prayer to God in tears, alms were continually given, whatever good works the present necessity demanded were fulfilled, as the servant of God had instructed.

While all were occupied with exertions of this sort, a certain very poor man forsook the work of God that was begun, to look after his own field of standing corn, a little plot which stood among the sowings of the others.

And having gone out, and all day anxiously and diligently driven away, so far as he could, the threatening cloud of locusts, he then went to the church to partake of the holy communion.

But his little patch of corn, surrounded by his neighbors' many crops, was devoured by the dense swarm of locusts.

The locusts were that night by divine command removed from those territories: So when at dawn the violator and scorner of the holy work again went forth 57 anxiously to his field, he found it swept perfectly bare by the baleful work of the locusts, while all the sowings round about were untouched.

Utterly amazed, he returned with doleful outcries to the castle. When he had published what had happened, all went out to see the miracle; where the ravages of the locusts had marked out as if by a ruled line the corn plot of this contumacious fellow.

Then he cast himself at their feet and with lamentations begged for the pardon of his sin by the aid of their intercession. Wherefore the man of God took occasion to give a warning, and taught all that they should learn to obey the Lord omnipotent, whose commands even the locusts observe.

But the poor man, weeping, declared that, for the rest, he could obey the commands, if but a hope of wherewithal he might live had been left him.

Then the man of God addressed the others. Near a town called Juvao, 54 they went into the church one summer day to celebrate the evening service, but found no fire for lighting the lamps.

Unable to elicit a blaze in the usual way, by striking stones together, they were so long delayed in striking iron and stone 55 that the time of the evening service was passing.

But the man of God kneeled on the ground and prayed earnestly; and soon, in full view of three clerics who were present at the time, the taper which Saint Severinus held in his hand was lighted.

Although he wished those who were present at this miracle to keep the fact secret, as in the case of 59 many mighty works which were performed through him by God's doing, yet the splendor of so great virtue could not be hid, but surpassingly kindled others to a great faith.

It happened that a certain woman of Juvao was vexed by long continued sickness and lay half-dead, and the burial was already prepared. Her relatives, in mournful silence, repressed funereal lamentations at the voice of faith, and laid the sick woman's now almost lifeless body at the door of the saint's cell.

When the man of God saw the entrance closed by the bed set against it, he said to them, "Why have ye done this? I know myself utterly unworthy. O that I may deserve to find pardon for my sins!

Quintanis 57 was a municipality of Raetia Secunda, 58 situated on the bank of the Danube. Near by on the other side ran a small river named Businca.

Often the Businca, when swollen in time of flood by the overflow of the Danube, covered some spaces of the castle, because the latter stood on the plain.

Moreover the inhabitants of this place had built outside the walls a wooden church which overhung the water, and was supported by posts driven into the riverbed and by forked props.

In place of a flooring it had a slippery platform of boards, which were covered by the overflowing water whenever it rose above the banks.

Coming at a time of drought, he asked why the boards were seen bare and uncovered. The neighbors answered that the frequent inundations of the river always washed away anything that was spread on the boards.

But he said, "In Christ's name, let a pavement be now laid upon the boards; from henceforth ye shall see the river restrained by the command of heaven.

Moreover it happened that there died a highly venerable priest of Quintanis, Silvinus by name. The bier was placed in the church, and, according to the custom, they passed the night watching and singing psalms.

When the dawn was already breaking, the man of God asked all the weary priests and deacons 62 to go away for a little while, that after the toil of watching they might refresh themselves somewhat by sleep.

When they had gone out, the man of God asked the doorkeeper, Maternus by name, whether all had departed as he had bidden. When Maternus answered that all had gone out, "Not so," he said, "but there is a woman hiding here.

But the soldier of Christ, the Lord revealing it to him, said, "Some one is lurking here. Therefore the doorkeeper reproved her: Then, as the priest ended the prayer, the saint thus addressed the corpse: And again he 63 speaketh unto him, "Shall we ask the Lord that he deign to grant thee still in this life to us, his servants?

Now this event was so concealed at the earnest request of Saint Severinus, that no one knew of it until after his death. Yet I learned what I have reported from the account of Marcus the subdeacon and Maternus the janitor.

For the priest and the deacon, witnesses of this great miracle, are known to have died before the saint, to whom they had sworn to reveal to no one that which they had seen.

Not only did the grace of Christ make Saint Severinus rich in such gifts, but also from his innate goodness he took so great care of captives and the needy that almost all the poor through all the towns and castles 64 were fed by his activity.

To these he ministered with such cheerful concern, that he believed himself to be filled or to abound in all good things only when he saw that the needy had their bodily wants supplied.

Though he himself was not in the least enfeebled by repeated week-long fasts, yet he felt himself afflicted by the hunger of the unfortunate.

When they saw his pious largess to the poor, great numbers, although they were straitened with hunger under the harsh sway of the barbarians, faithfully gave the poor the tithes of their crops.

Though this commandment is familiar to all from the law, 60 yet these observed it with 65 grateful devotion, as though they were hearing it given by the lips of an angel present among them.

The cold, too, was felt by the man of God only in the nakedness of the poor. Indeed, he had received from God the special gift of remaining vigorous and active, hardened by his wonderful abstinence, in a land of bitter cold.

We spoke of tithes for the support of the poor. He was wont to send letters, urging the communities of Noricum 61 also to give them.

This became their custom, and once, when they had sent to him a quantity of clothing to be distributed, he asked the attendants whether the town of Tiburnia 62 was sending a like contribution.

They answered that men from that place also would soon arrive. But the man of God signified that they should not come, and foretold that the offering which they had delayed must be made to the barbarians.

Accordingly, not long after the citizens of Tiburnia were beleaguered by the Goths, and fought them with varying fortune; and under the 66 terms of peace, which they obtained with difficulty, they presented to the enemy, among other things, the largess, already collected, which they had delayed to send to the servant of God.

Likewise the citizens of the town of Lauriacum, 64 in spite of many warning exhortations from Saint Severinus, had delayed offering to the poor the tithes of their crops.

They were pinched with hunger, and the yellow of the ripening harvest showed that relief was at hand. But when a destructive rust unexpectedly appeared, and was on the point of damaging the crops, they immediately came and cast themselves down before Saint Severinus, and acknowledged the punishment of their stubbornness.

But the soldier of 67 Christ comforted the feeble ones with spiritual words, saying, "Had ye offered tithes for the poor, not only would ye enjoy an everlasting reward, but ye would also be able to abound in present comforts.

But since ye rebuke your sin by your own confession, I promise you, by the goodness of the Lord, that this mighty rust shall cause no damage whatever; only let not your faith waver any more.

Then, as was his wont, he urged that a fast be proclaimed. When this had ended, a gentle rain relieved from danger the harvest of which they had despaired.

Batavis 66 is a town lying between two rivers, the Aenus and the Danube. There Saint Severinus had established after his wonted fashion a cell for a few monks, because he himself not infrequently came thither at the request of the citizens; particularly on 68 account of the constant incursions of the Alamanni, whose king, Gibuldus, greatly honored and loved him.

Now on a certain occasion Gibuldus came eagerly to see him. That the king might not encumber Ba-tavis by his visit, the saint went out to meet him, and addressed the king with so great firmness, that Gibuldus began to tremble violently before him, and declared to his armies, as he withdrew, that never, in war or in any peril, had he been smitten with such trembling.

And when he gave to the servant of God his choice, to give what command he would, the most pious teacher asked that the king should pay attention rather to his own best interests, restrain his nation from laying waste the Roman territory, and set free without ransom the captives his followers had made.

Then the king appointed that Severinus should direct some one from his own followers to bring this work more speedily to completion.

Forthwith Deacon Amantius was dispatched, and followed in the king's path; but, though he watched before his gates many days, he could not secure an audience.

As he was turning back, very sorrowful because his appointed task had not been accomplished, a man appeared in the form of Saint Severinus, who accosted him menacingly, and, as he stood in utter terror, bade him follow.

As he followed in fear and excitement, he came to the king's door; and immediately the guide that had gone before him vanished from his wondering eyes.

But the king's messenger asked the deacon whence he came and what he wished. He told his 69 errand briefly, gave letters to the king, and received others from him, and returned home.

He conveyed back about seventy captives, and moreover brought the pleasing promise of the king, that when he had diligently searched through the province, he would send back all the captives that were to be found there.

Later Saint Lucillus the priest was selected to attend to this matter, and recovered from captivity a great number of unfortunates. So long as the Roman dominion lasted, soldiers were maintained in many towns at the public expense to guard the boundary wall.

The troop at Batavis, however, held out. One day, as Saint Severinus was reading in his cell, he suddenly closed the book and began to sigh greatly and to weep.

He ordered the bystanders to 70 run out with haste to the river, which he declared was in that hour besprinkled with human blood; and straightway word was brought that the bodies of the soldiers mentioned above had been brought to land by the current of the river.

One Paulinus, a priest, had come to Saint Severinus, whose fame was extending. When he wished to return home, Severinus said to him, "Hasten, venerable priest; for, beloved, the episcopal dignity shall speedily adorn thee, even if, as we believe, thou opposest the desire of the peoples.

For the citizens of Tiburnia, which is the metropolis of Noricum, compelled him to assume the preeminence of the highest priesthood.

For a church beyond the walls of Batavis, in a place named Bojotro, 70 across the Aenus, where Severinus had built a cell for a few monks, relics of martyrs were sought.

When the priests were accordingly pushing themselves forward that they might be sent to fetch relics, 71 Saint Severinus uttered this warning: Meantime the citizens of Batavis approached the saint, and besought him to go to Feba, prince of the Rugii, to ask permission for them to trade.

He said to them, "The time of this town is at hand, that it remain deserted like the rest of the upper castles and uninhabited.

Why, then, is it necessary to provide merchandise for places where in future no merchant can appear? A certain priest, filled with the spirit of Satan, added, "Go, saint, I beg, go quickly, that for a little space thy departure may give us rest from fastings and vigils.

For open scurrility is a witness of hidden sins. When the saint was asked by the brethren why he was weeping thus, "I see," he said, "a heavy blow that in my absence shall straightway befall this place; and, with groaning I must say it, the shrine of Christ shall so overflow with human blood, that even this place must be desecrated.

Therefore he went down the Danube by ship a hundred miles and more to his old monastery, larger than the others, near the walls of Favianis.

As he was going down the river, Hunimund, 72 accompanied by a 73 few barbarians, attacked the town of Batavis, as the saint had foretold, and, while almost all the inhabitants were occupied in the harvest, put to death forty men of the town who had remained for a guard.

The priest who had spoken sacrilegious words in the baptistery against the servant of Christ fled for refuge to the same place, and was slain by the pursuing barbarians.

For in vain did the offender against God and enemy of truth seek protection in the place where he had so impudently transgressed. Once while Saint Severinus was reading the Gospel in the monastery at Favianis, after offering prayer he arose, ordered a skiff to be instantly prepared for him, and said to the astonished bystanders, "Blessed be the name of the Lord; we must go to meet the relics of the sainted martyrs.

The servant of Christ was pointed out to 74 him; and immediately and as a suppliant he offered him the relics of Saint John the Baptist, which he had kept by him for a long time.

The servant of God received the relics with the veneration they deserved; and so the blessing of Saint John was bestowed unasked upon the church, as he had foretold, and Severinus consecrated the relics by the hands of the priests.

There was a town called Joviaco, 73 twenty miles and more distant from Batavis. Thither the man of God, impressed as usual by a revelation, sent a singer of the church, Moderatus by name; admonishing that all the inhabitants should quit that place without delay.

For imminent destruction threatened them if they despised his commands. Therefore yet again he sent one unto them, a certain 75 man of Quintanis, to whom he said, weeping, "Make haste!

Declare unto them that if they stay there this night, they shall without delay be made captives! The servant of God said that he was in great sorrow over him, lest haply he might postpone obedience to the saving command, and so be exposed to the threatening destruction.

Accordingly the messenger of the man of God went and fulfilled his orders; and when the others in their unbelief hesitated, he did not tarry a moment, though the priest strove to keep him and wished to extend to him the courtesy of his hospitality.

That night the Heruli made a sudden, unexpected onslaught, sacked the town, and led most of the people into captivity. They hanged the priest Maximianus on a cross.

When the news came, the servant of God grieved sorely that his warnings had been disregarded. Later a man from Noricum, Maximus by name, came to visit the servant of God, as was his frequent custom.

Pursuant to their established friendship, he tarried some days in the monastery of the saint. Then Severinus informed him by his oracles that his country was about to experience a sudden and heavy disaster.

Maximus took a letter addressed to Saint 76 Paulinus the bishop, and in all haste returned home. Accordingly Paulinus, prepared by the contents of the letter, wrote to all the castles of his diocese, and strongly admonished them to meet the coming mischief and disaster by a three days' fast, as the letter of the man of God had indicated.

They obeyed these commands, and the fast was ended, when lo, a vast multitude of the Alamanni, minions of Death, laid everything waste.

But the castles felt no danger. The trusty cuirass of fasting, and praiseworthy humility of heart, with the aid of the prophet, had armed them boldly against the fierceness of the enemy.

Later, a leper from the territory of Milan came to Saint Severinus, attracted by his fame. When he prayed and begged to be made whole, Severinus decreed a fast, and commended the leper to his monks; and through the work of God's grace he was forthwith cleansed.

When he had been made whole and was advised to return to his country, he threw himself at the feet of the saint, imploring that he be not compelled to go home again; desiring that he might escape from the leprosy of sin as he had from that of the flesh, and might close his life in the same place with a praiseworthy end.

The man of God greatly admired his pious purpose, and with fatherly command instructed a few monks to practise frequent 77 fasts with him and to continue in uninterrupted prayer, in order that the Lord might grant to him those things which were meet.

Fortified by so great remedies, within the space of two months the man was freed from the fetters of mortal life. At the same time the inhabitants of the town of Quintanis, exhausted by the incessant incursions of the Alamanni, left their own abodes and removed to the town of Batavis.

But their place of refuge did not remain hidden from the Alamanni: But Saint Severinus applied himself vigorously to prayer, and encouraged the Romans in manifold ways by examples of salvation.

He foretold that the present foes should indeed by God's aid be overcome; but that after the victory those who despised his admonitions should perish.

Therefore the Romans in a body, strengthened by the prediction of the saint, and in the hope of the promised victory, drew up against the Alamanni in order of battle, fortified less with material arms than by the prayers of the saint.

The Alamanni were overthrown in the conflict and fled. The man of God addressed the victors as follows. So gather together and go down with me to the town of Lauriacum.

But when the people of Batavis hesitated to leave their native soil, he added, "Although that town also, whither we go, must be abandoned as speedily as possible before the inrushing barbarism, yet let us now in like manner depart from this place.

As he impressed such things upon their minds, most of the people followed him. A few indeed proved stubborn, nor did the scorners escape the hostile sword.

For that same week the Thuringi stormed the town; and of those who notwithstanding the prohibition of the man of God remained there, a part were butchered, the rest led off into captivity and made to pay the penalty for their scorn.

After the destruction of the towns on the upper course of the Danube, all the people who had obeyed the warnings of Saint Severinus removed into the town of Lauriacum.

He warned them with incessant exhortations not to put trust in their own strength, but to apply themselves to prayers and fastings and almsgivings, and to be defended rather by the weapons of the spirit.

Moreover one day the man of God appointed that all the poor be gathered together in one church, that he might, as custom demanded, dispense oil to them: Accordingly a great throng of the needy assembled, as if for the sake of receiving the benediction.

No doubt the presence of this fluid, a costly food, swelled 80 the throng and the number of applicants. When the saint had finished the prayer, and made the sign of the cross, he uttered as usual, while all listened, the word of Holy Writ, "Blessed be the name of the Lord.

Now while the bystanders silently wondered at so great a blessing of God, one of them, whose name was Pientissimus, in amazement and great fear cried out, "My Lord!

This pot of oil increases, and overflows like a fountain! Straightway the servant of Christ cried out and said, "Brother, what hast thou done?

Thou hast hindered the advantage of many: After she had done this, and asked for yet more vessels from her sons, when she heard that there was not a vessel more, straightway the oil stayed.

At the same time Maximus of Noricum, of whom we have made mention above, kindled by the warmth of his faith, at midwinter, when the roads of that region are closed by the numbing cold, hastened to come to Saint Severinus.

It was an enterprise of rash temerity, or rather, as was afterwards manifest, of fearless devotion. He had hired many companions, to carry on their backs, for the benefit of the captives and the poor, a collection of clothing which the people of Noricum had piously given.

And when they despaired utterly of their lives, since no aid as they thought was at hand, the leader of the companions saw in his sleep a vision of the man of God standing and saying unto him, "Fear not; complete your journey.

He immediately disclosed the desired road, and for about two hundred miles, turning aside neither to the left nor to the right, showed a passable way.

For he went just far enough ahead of them so that his fresh track broke out a path. So, leading through the desert wilderness, the beast did not forsake the men who were bringing relief to the needy, but with the utmost possible friendliness conducted them as far as human habitations.

Then, having fulfilled his duty, he turned aside and departed: When the arrivals were announced to the servant of God, he said, "Blessed be the name of the Lord!

Let them enter, to whom a bear hath opened a way for their coming. The citizens of the town of Lauriacum and the fugitives from the upper castles appointed scouts to explore the suspected places, and guarded against the enemy, so far as by human care they could.

The servant of God, instructed by divine inspiration, arranged beforehand with prophetic mind that they should bring inside the city wall all their meagre property, in order 83 that the foemen in their deadly foray, meeting with no human life, might be promptly forced by hunger to abandon their frightful and cruel designs.

This he earnestly entreated for four days. When the fourth day already verged toward evening, he sent a monk, Valens by name, to Saint Constantius, bishop of the town, 82 and said to the others who remained, "Set the customary guards at the walls tonight, and keep a stricter watch; and beware of a sudden and treacherous assault by the foe.

But the servant of Christ did not cease to forewarn the hesitant, and cried out with a loud voice, affirming that they would be taken captive that same night unless they faithfully obeyed his commands.

He often repeated the words, "If I shall be proved a liar, stone me. At the beginning of the night they sang psalms, as they were wont, and afterwards the men gathered in great numbers and commenced their watch.

Then a nearby haystack, accidentally fired by a porter's torch, illuminated, but did not burn the city.

When this happened, every one howled and shouted, and the enemy concealed in the woods and forests were 84 terrified by the sudden brightness and the shouting, and, thinking themselves detected, remained quiet.

Next morning they surrounded the city, and ran to and fro everywhere; but when they found no food, they seized the herd of cattle of a certain man who in the face of the prophecies of the servant of God had stubbornly scorned to secure his possessions, and withdrew.

Now when they were gone the citizens sallied forth from the gates, and found ladders lying not far from the walls. These the barbarians had made ready for the destruction of the city, and had thrown away when they were disturbed in the night by the shouting.

Therefore the citizens of Lauriacum humbly besought pardon from the servant of Christ, confessing that their hearts were harder than stones. They recognized from these events that the loveliness of prophecy bloomed in the saint.

Assuredly the disobedient populace would all have gone into captivity, had not the accustomed prayer of the man of God kept them free; for as James the apostle bears witness, "The continual prayer of a righteous man availeth much.

Feletheus, sometimes called Feva, king of the Rugii, hearing that from all the towns by the advice of the servant of God the remnants that had escaped the barbarian sword had gathered at Lauriacum, took an 85 army and came, purposing to bring them quickly into his own power and to lead them away and settle them in the towns, of which Favianis was one, that were tributary to him and near him, and were separated from the Rugii only by the Danube.

Wherefore all were deeply disturbed, and with prayers went to Saint Severinus, that he might go forth to meet the king and moderate his purpose.

All night Severinus hastened, and in the morning met him at the twentieth milestone from the city. The king, much alarmed by his arrival, averred that he was vastly distressed by the saint's fatiguing journey, and inquired the causes of his sudden visit.

To whom thus answered the servant of God: I come to thee as ambassador of Christ, to beg compassion for the conquered. Reflect upon the grace, recall to mind the divine favors, of whose repeated aid thy father was sensible.

Throughout the whole time of his reign he never ventured to take any step without my advice. He did not withstand my salutary admonitions; and from frequent successes he learned to recognize the great value of an obedient mind, and how greatly it profiteth victors not to be puffed up by their triumphs.

Were they not rather reserved by the favor of God, that they might be able for a short while to obey thee? Therefore, most excellent king, do not now reject my counsel.

Commit these subjects to my guardian care, lest by the constraint of so great an army they be ruined rather than removed.

For I trust in my Lord, that he, who hath made me a witness of their calamities, shall make me a suitable leader to conduct them to safety.

The king was appeased by these moderate representations, and forthwith went back with his army. Therefore the Romans whom Saint Severinus had received in his guardian care left Lauriacum, were amicably established in the towns, and lived in friendly alliance with the Rugii.

At about the same time King Odoacer addressed a friendly letter to Saint Severinus, and, mindful of that prophecy, by which of yore he had foretold that 87 he should become king, entreated him to choose whatsoever gift he might desire.

In response to this august invitation, the saint asked that one Ambrose, who was living in exile, be pardoned. Odoacer joyfully obeyed his command.

Also, once when in the saint's presence many nobles were praising Odoacer with the adulation usual among men, Severinus asked on what king they were conferring such great commendations.

At the entreaty of the townspeople, among whom he had first won fame, Saint Severinus came to Comagenis. One of the nobles of King Feletheus had a son, a youth, who was wasted away by inveterate sickness and for whose burial preparations were already in progress.

When the nobleman learned that Severinus was at Comagenis, he crossed the Danube and cast himself at his feet.

Weeping, he said, "I believe, man of God, that thy entreaty can procure from heaven a swift recovery for my son.

The boy, who had been brought to him half-dead, straightway arose whole, to the amazement of his father, and forthwith returned home in perfect health.

Likewise a certain leper, Tejo by name, attracted by the virtues of Saint Severinus, came from a far country, asking to be cleansed through his prayer.

So he was given the customary command, and bidden ceaselessly and with tears to implore God, the giver of all grace. Through the prayers of the saint the leper was cleansed by the divine aid; as he altered his character for the better, he gained a change of color also; and he, and many others who knew of him, proclaimed far and wide the mighty works of the Eternal King.

Bonosus, by birth a barbarian, was a monk of Saint Severinus, and hung upon his words. He was much afflicted by weakness of the eyes, and desired that cure be afforded him through the prayers of the saint.

He bore it ill that strangers and foreigners experienced the aid of healing grace, while no cure or help was tendered to him.

The servant of God said unto him, "Son, it is not expedient for thee to have clear sight in the bodily eyes, and to prefer distinct vision by the eye of the flesh.

Pray rather that thy inner sight may be quickened. He gained a wonderful power of unwavering continuance in prayer. After 89 he had remained steadfastly for about forty years in the service of the monastery, he passed away in the same ardent faith in which he was converted.

In Bojotro, a place mentioned above, the humble teacher perceived that three monks of his monastery were stained with horrid pride.

When he had ascertained that each of them upon being visited with reproach was hardened in his sin, he prayed that the Lord should receive them into the adoption of sons, and deign to reprove them with the paternal lash.

Before he had ended his tearful prayer, the three monks were in one and the same instant seized violently by the devil and tormented, and with cries confessed the stubbornness of their hearts.

Let it not seem to any one cruel or wrong, that men of this sort are delivered "unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh," as the blessed apostle teacheth, "that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

So the man of God turned over the three monks to the brethren, and subjected them for forty days to the bitter remedy of fasting. When the days were fulfilled, he spake a prayer over them, and plucked them forth from the power of the devil, and bestowed upon them soundness not only of body but of mind.

As a result of this event, the saint was held in enhanced awe and terror, and a greater fear of discipline possessed the rest.

Marcianus the monk, who was afterward priest, and who preceded me in the headship of the monastery, was sent by Severinus to Noricum in company with Brother Renatus.

As the third day was passing, the saint said to the brethren, "Pray, dearly beloved, for at this hour grievous tribulation is upon Marcianus and Renatus, from which nevertheless they shall be freed by Christ's aid.

Also most blessed Severinus suddenly commanded one of the brethren, by name Ursus, to meet in advance a coming calamity by a strict fast of forty days, with abstinence from food, and lamentations, saying, "A bodily peril threatens thee, which through God's protection thou shalt avert by the remedy of a scanty diet of bread and water.

The holy servant of God said unto him, "Do not fear the crisis which was foretold thee forty days ago"; and straightway with his own hand made the sign of the cross over it; whereupon the fatal pustule vanished, to the amazement of the bystanders.

For often through the revelation of Christ he foretold the illnesses of his monks, and healed them through the same gifts by which he foresaw them.

The spiritual teacher, continuing instant in prayer and fasting, dwelt not far from the cell of his disciples.

With them he regularly completed the morning prayers, and the proper psalm-singing in the evening. In his seasons of prayer he was often strengthened by celestial oracles, and through the grace of God foretold many things that were to come.

He knew the secrets of many things, and, when there was need, made them known, and provided remedies for each patient, according as the kind of sickness demanded.

His bed was a single mohair rug on the floor of the oratory. He wept over the sins of others as if they were his own, and helped to overcome them by such aid as he could give.

At last, after many struggles and long contests, Saint Severinus, through the revelation of God, perceived that he was about to pass from this world.

He bade Feva, king of the Rugii, mentioned above, to come to him with his cruel wife Giso. He exhorted Feva, with salutary words, that in dealing with his subjects he should constantly bear in mind that he must render account to the Lord for the condition of his kingdom; and fearlessly added other admonitions.

Then he stretched forth his hand, pointing to the king's breast, and reproachfully asked the queen, "Giso, which lovest thou the more, this soul, or gold and silver?

For thou often bringest to naught the clemency of the king. Hitherto by God's help your kingdom hath been prospered. Henceforth look to it. Then the saint ceased not to address his people in the sweetness of love concerning the nearness of his departure.

Indeed, he had done so ceaselessly before. For all shall depart from these towns with their possessions, 96 and shall reach the Roman province without any loss by capture.

But remember the command of the holy patriarch Joseph, in the words of whose testimony I, though unworthy and most lowly, make my request to you: For these places, now thronged with inhabitants, shall be rendered a solitude so utterly waste that the enemy, thinking to find gold, shall dig up even the graves of the dead.

But the most holy father, with pious forethought, ordered his body to be removed as a token; in order that when the general transmigration of the people should take place, the company of brethren which he had gathered might depart undivided, and, held together by the common bond of his memory, might endure as one holy society.

Moreover most blessed Severinus revealed two years or more in advance the day on which he was to pass from the body.

But Severinus answered, "Holy priest, this thing which thou hast heard shall come to pass, nor shall the Lord's ordinance be brought to naught by the will of man.

Feva, king of the Rugii, had given Favianis, one of the few towns which remained on the bank of the Danube, to his brother Ferderuchus. Near this town, as I have related, Saint Severinus dwelt.

When Ferderuchus came, as was his wont, to pay his respects to Severinus, the soldier of Christ began to tell him eagerly of his approaching journey, and adjured him, saying: Therefore be warned, and beware of attempting, when I am gone, to lay hands on any of these things which have been committed to me.

Seize not the substance of the poor and the captives. If thou art guilty of such foolhardiness, which may Heaven forfend, thou shalt feel the wrath of God!

Does a… 9 Antworten How to address an ambassador Letzter Beitrag: Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf.

Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider approach issue durch trotzdem Termin. Im Web und als APP.

Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. Es werden teilweise auch Cookies von Diensten Dritter gesetzt.

Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. The interlocutors hold that the constitution which they propose should be a combination of the three forms of governmentmonarchy, aristocracy, democracy.

Each of these is to contribute what is genuine and sincere to the formation of the ideal constitution. There is no clue to the author.

Read the work of Theodore of Antioch 1 entitled A Commentary on Genesis the history of the Creation , the first book of which contains seven volumes.

The style is neither brilliant nor very clear. The author avoids the use of allegory as much as possible, being only concerned with the interpretation of history.

He frequently repeats himself, and produces a disagreeable impression upon the reader. Although he lived before Nestorius, he vomits up his doctrines by anticipation.

This is that Theodore of Mopsuestia, from whom on several occasions John Philoponus as the latter himself says demanded a serious explanation of his method of interpretation in his own work on the Creation.

Read the brief refutation of the discourse of Hierocles 2 in support of Apollonius of Tyana 3 by Eusebius Pamphili. Read the so-called Ecclesiastical History by Philostorgius 1 the Arian, the spirit of which is different from that of nearly all other ecclesiastical historians.

He extols all Arians, but abuses and insults all the orthodox, so that his work is not so much a history as a panegyric of the heretics, and nothing but a barefaced attack upon the orthodox.

His style is elegant, his diction often poetical, though not to such an extent as to be tedious or disagreeable. His figurative use of words is very expressive and makes the work both pleasant and agreeable to read; sometimes, however, these figures are overbold and far-fetched, and create an impression of being frigid and ill-timed.

The language is variously embellished even to excess, so that the reader imperceptibly finds himself involved in a disagreeable obscurity.

In many instances the author introduces appropriate moral reflections of his own. He starts from the devotion of Arius to the heresy and its first beginnings, and ends with the recall of the impious Aetius.

He was recalled and welcomed by the impious Julian. The history, in one book and six volumes, goes down to this period.

The author is a liar and the narrative often fictitious. He chiefly extols Aetius and Eunomius for their learning, as having alone cleansed the doctrines of faith overlaid by time, therein showing himself a monstrous liar.

He also praises Eusebius of Nicomedia 3 whom he calls the Great , Theophilus the Indian, 4 and several others, for their lives and wonderful works.

He severely attacks Acacius, bishop of Caesarea 5 in Palestine, for his extreme severity and invincible craftiness, in which, he declares, Acacius surpassed all his fellow-heretics, however filled they were with hatred of one another, as well as those who held different religious opinions.

This was the extent of our reading. Soon afterwards six other books were found in another volume, so that the whole appears to have filled twelve books.

The initial letters of each book are so arranged that they form the name of the author. The work goes down to the time of Theodosius the Younger, when, after the death of Honorius, Theodosius handed over the throne of the West to his cousin Valentinian the Younger, the son of Constantius and Placidia.

Notwithstanding his rage against the orthodox, Philostorgius does not venture to attack Gregory the Theologian, 6 but unwillingly accepts his doctrines.

His attempt to slander Basil the Great only had the effect of increasing his reputation. He was forced to admit the vigour and beauty of his sermons from actual knowledge, although he timidly calls Basil overbold and inexperienced in controversy, because he ventured to attack the writings of Eunomius.

The history covered the period from to He supported the extreme Arianism of Eunomius. A considerable number of extracts also from Photius have been published as a separate work.

He was exiled by Constantius, but recalled by Julian the Apostate. He was born in the island of Diu India , but in early youth was taken as a hostage to Constantinople, where he became a Christian Arian.

Read the Ecclesiastical History by a certain John. The style is clear but florid. The author describes in detail the third council held at Ephesus, 4 and also another council held in the same place, the "Robber" council, 5 which he deifies together with its president Dioscorus and his companions.

He also gives a slanderous account of the council of Chalcedon. This justifies the conclusion that the author is John, presbyter of Aegae, a heretic who wrote a special attack on the council of Chalcedon.

The history, according to his statement, is in ten books. I have only read five, containing as already stated a record of events from the heresy of Nestorius to the deposition of Peter the heretic.

Photius calls him a Nestorian, but it is suggested that this is a mistake for Eutychian. Read the Ecclesiastical History of Basil the Cilician.

It was through him that Acacius was deprived of his see; for although Acacius at first was justly incensed against him, he subsequently showed no aversion to his doctrines and thereby incurred the suspicion of being a heretic.

This matter came up again during the reign of Zeno. The history begins at this time and goes down to the death of Anastasius, after he had reigned twenty-seven years and three months, Justin the Thracian being proclaimed his successor.

The author also states that two other books were written by him, the first and the third; the first beginning with the reign of Marcian and ending with that of Zeno, where the second begins, while the third continues the narrative of the second, beginning with the reign of Justin.

The author's style is rather slovenly and uneven. He also introduces a large amount of episcopal correspondence, the object of which, he says, is to prove what he writes; these vastly increase the bulk of the book and contain but little history, and that buried under a mass of verbiage.

The clearness of the narrative is destroyed by the number of parentheses. Presbyter of Antioch, afterwards bishop of Irenopolis in Cilicia see Cod.

Read the treatise of John Philoponus on the Hexaemeron. He agrees in the main with Basil the Great, but everywhere opposes Theodore of Mopsuestia, who, taking up the same subject, wrote his Interpretation of Genesis, which Philoponus in turn endeavours to refute.

He tells us that Apollonius visited the Indians, whom he calls Brahmins, from whom he learnt much of their divine wisdom. He also visited the wise men of Aethiopia, whom he calls Gymni , 3 because they pass all their life naked and never wear clothes even in the most trying weather.

But he declares that the wise men of India are far superior to those of Aethiopia, since they are older in point of time and their intellect is purer and keener, owing to their living nearer to the rays of the sun.

He does not, however, assert that Apollonius worked any wonders such as legend ascribes to him; he merely extols him as leading a philosophic and temperate life, in which he exhibits the teaching of Pythagoras, both in manners and doctrine.

Various accounts are given of his death, the circumstances of which are obscure, as he himself desired; for during his lifetime he was in the habit of saying that the wise man should keep his life a secret from others, or, if he could not, should at least keep his death a secret.

Philostratus states that Apollonius had a great contempt for riches; he gave up all he possessed to his brother and others, and could never be persuaded to accept money from those in authority, 5 although they pressed it upon him as deserving it.

He asserts that he long foresaw the famine at Ephesus and stopped it after it broke out. He once saw a certain lion, which he declared to be the soul of Amasis, king of the Egyptians, 6 which had entered the body of the animal as a punishment for the crimes Amasis had committed during his lifetime.

He also exposed an Empusa, 7 which, under the guise of a courtesan, pretended to be enamoured of Menippus. Before Domitian he defended himself and extolled Nerva Domitian's successor ; after which he vanished from the court, and joined Demetrius 9 and Damis 10 as had been arranged, not after a long time, but in a few moments, though they were several days' journey apart.

Such are the fictions of Philostratus concerning Apollonius. He denies, however, that he was a wonder-worker, if he performed some of the wonders that are commonly attributed to him, but asserts that they were the result of his philosophy and the purity of his life.

On the contrary, he was the enemy of magicians and sorcerers and certainly no devotee of magic. All that he says about the Indians is a tissue of absurd and incredible statements.

He asserts that they have certain jars full of rains and winds, with which in time of drought they are able to water the country, and again to deprive it of moisture, after the rain has fallen, since in these casks they have the means of controlling the alternate supply of wind and rain.

He tells similar stories, equally foolish and preposterous, and these eight books are so much study and labour lost. Perhaps the Cynic who lived in Lucian's time.

He is said to have met Apollonius in Athens, but considering that his philosophical views were opposed to those of Apollonius, the account of the intimacy is probably untrue.

Demetrius had to leave Rome because of the freedom with which he attacked the emperor and the authorities. He is said to have handed over the MS.

Read two pamphlets by Andronicianus 5 Against the Eunomians. In the preface he promises much that he does not perform, at any rate in the second book.

He shows himself a devoted student of philosophy in character, sentiment, and style. By religion he is a Christian.

Read twenty-seven books by Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, against various heretical propositions. In the second, he supports his contentions more by arguments from Scripture.

The fifth contains a collection of the opinions of the heretics, which are compared with the opinion of those who do not admit two natures in Christ and shown to be nearly akin.

The sixth distinctly states that there is one Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. The seventh is in the form of a letter completing the first book.

The eighth is written against those who judge the truth only by the opinion of the multitude. The ninth is against those who assert that we should neither seek arguments nor quote from the Scriptures, but that we must be satisfied with our faith.

The tenth is against those who malevolently bring forward the argument that "the Word was made flesh. The twelfth is against those who assert that he who says the Word is one thing and the flesh another, assumes there are two Sons.

The thirteenth is against those who say that to regard Christ as a man is to put one's hopes in man. The fourteenth is against those who say, "He suffered without suffering.

The seventeenth is against those who say, "The Word suffered in the flesh. The nineteenth is against those who declare that he who does not believe that God was crucified is a Jew.

The twentieth is against those who assert that the angels who ate with Abraham did not entirely put on the nature of flesh.

The twenty-first is against those who depreciate each of the miracles, by denying the flesh. The twenty-second is against those who injure our race, by denying that the Saviour began with our nature.

The twenty-third is against those who bid us simply believe what is said, without considering what is seemly or what is unseemly.

The twenty-fourth is against those who do away with the difference of the two natures, after the Passion and the Ascension. The twenty-fifth is a summary of all that has already been stated in detail.

The twenty-sixth deals with the subsequently manifested composition or consubstantiation; the twenty-seventh with the example from the ordinary man applied to Christ.

The subject alone in each case is sufficient to indicate which of the above confirm the orthodox faith, and which are at variance with it. Read in the same volume three larger works than those mentioned, entitled Eranistes the Beggar or Polymorphos multiform.

In a fourth book, these statements are supported by argument. The three books were composed by him in the form of a dialogue, but the rest are in continuous prose.

The style is clear, distinct, and pure; not wanting in charm, and the works abound in suitable reflections. The capture of Iotapata 3 at which Josephus himself was taken prisoner and Gischala, 2 and the desolation of other Jewish fortresses is described, and in the last book the destruction of Jerusalem and the fortress of Masada.

The author has a pure style, and is apt at expressing his meaning with dignity, with distinctness and charm. In the speeches introduced he is persuasive and agreeable, even when the opportunity invites him to take opposite views; he is clever and prolific in the use of arguments on either side, and is extremely fond of aphorisms.

He is also very skilful in introducing the emotional, in rousing the passions and calming them. He relates that many signs and portents preceded the taking of Jerusalem.

A heifer that was being led to the sacrifice brought forth a lamb; a light shone in the temple and a voice was heard saying, "Let us remove hence"; the gates of the temple, which twenty men could hardly open, opened of their own accord; in the evening troops appeared clad in armour.

A man named Jesus, son of Ananias, for six years and three months incessantly repeated, like one inspired, the words "Woe, woe to Jerusalem!

He was present at the capture of the city, and while crying out "Woe, woe, to the city! Such were the signs that foretold the taking of the city; but it was internal sedition, together with the enemy, that overthrew it.

Split up into the factions of Zelotae and Sicarii, 4 they destroyed one another, and thus the body of the state was cruelly and mercilessly torn asunder by the common people.

The city suffered so grievously from famine that the inhabitants were driven to all kinds of excesses; a woman even ate the flesh of her own son.

Famine was succeeded by pestilence, a clear proof that it was the work of the divine wrath, in fulfilment of the Lord's proclamation and threat that the city should be taken and utterly destroyed.

His other extant works are: Jewish Antiquities, Autobiography, a polemical treatise Against Apion. They did not shrink from murder, and carried small daggers sicae to stab those whom they considered the enemies of their country.

It consists of two little treatises, in which the author shows that Plato contradicts himself. He also refutes Alcinous, 2 whose views on the soul, matter, and the Resurrection are false and absurd, and introduces his own opinions on the subject.

He proves that the Jewish nation is far older than the Greek. He thinks that man is a compound of fire, earth, and water, and also of spirit, which he calls soul.

Of the spirit he speaks as follows: Taking the chief part of this, he moulded it together with the body, and opened a passage for it through every joint and limb.

The spirit, thus moulded together with the body and pervading it throughout, is formed in the likeness of the visible body, but its nature is colder, compared with the three other substances of which the body is compounded.

These views are not in harmony with the Jewish ideas of human physiology, and are below the customary standard of his other writings.

He also gives a summary account of the creation of the world. Of Christ the true God he speaks like ourselves, openly giving Him the name of God, and describing, in language to which no objection can be taken, His indescribable generation from the Father.

This might, perhaps, cause people to doubt whether the treatise is really by Josephus, although in respect of style it does not differ from the rest of his writings.

I find a marginal note to the effect that the work is not by Josephus, but by one Gaius, 3 a presbyter of Rome, also the author of The Labyrinth, 4 and of a dialogue against Proclus, the champion of the Montanists.

But there is no doubt that the work is by Gaius, the author of The Labyrinth, who at the end of this treatise has left it on record that he was the author of The Nature of the Universe.

But it is not quite clear to me, whether this is the same or a different work. This Gaius is said to have been a presbyter of the Church at Rome, during the episcopate of Victor 6 and Zephyrinus, 7 and to have been ordained bishop of the gentiles.

He wrote another special work against the heresy of Artemon, 8 and also composed a weighty treatise against Proclus, the supporter of Montanus.

In this he reckons only thirteen epistles of St. Paul, and does not include the Epistle to the Hebrews. It is a question whether it is identical with The Little Labyrinth mentioned by Theodoret.

He was a priest of Cybele, subsequently converted to Christianity and a teacher at Rome. According to his followers, he was the Paraclete or Holy Spirit promised by Christ.

Amongst other things they distinguished two classes of sins, those unto death and those not unto death; denied the validity of second marriages; did not baptize in the name of the Trinity, but in memory of Christ's death for mankind; despised the old prophets as possessed by evil spirits; and favoured a highly ascetic life.

His views were subsequently developed by Paul of Samosata flourished This work is probably identical with The Labyrinth.

Read the treatise of Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, Against the Blasphemies of Nestorius, in five books. In these he preserves his characteristic style and curious phraseology.

But he is clearer than in his letters to Hermeias 4 and his work On Adoration in the Spirit. The language is ornate and elaborate, forced into agreement with its peculiar form, which resembles prose poetry that despises metre.

Read the treatise of Nicias the monk 5 Against the Seven Chapters of Philoponus, which he mentioned in his work called the Arbitrator.

The style is simple and concise, suitable for controversial writings, and free from redundancies. Also read his attack On the impious Severus and two books Against the Heathen.

The work is meant for show, and is a studied attempt to work upon the feelings. It contains speeches to the people put into the mouth of Moses, and fictitious addresses of the people in reply.

There are also elaborate speeches of the Deity to Moses and the people, together with their replies, in the form of entreaty and excuse.

A great part of the work, which comprises a bulky volume, is devoted to these speeches. The author himself, so far as one can judge from this treatise, is orthodox.

It is suggested that he may have been the Hesychius who accused Eunomius of heresy. Read the account of the synod held at Side 1 against the sect of the Messalians, 2 Euchites, 2 or Adelphians.

Read in the same a letter of the synod to Flavian, bishop of Antioch, giving him an account of the proceedings. In consequence of this letter, Flavian summoned another synod against these same heretics, assisted by three other bishops, Bizus of Seleucia, Maruthas, bishop of the Sufareni, 4 and Samus.

There were also present priests and deacons to the number of thirty. The synod refused to accept Adelphius's profession of repentance or to admit him when he offered to renounce his heresy; for it was shown that neither his renunciation nor repentance was sincere.

The founders of this sect were Adelphius, who was neither a monk nor a priest, but one of the laity, Sabas, surnamed Apokopos castrated , who assumed the garb of a monk, another Sabas, Eustathius of Edessa, Dadoes, and Simeon, the tares of the evil one, and others who grew up together with them.

Adelphius and his followers were condemned, although they sought opportunity for repentance, which was refused them, since they were detected communicating in writing, as if they shared their views, with persons whom they had anathematized as Messalians.

Flavian wrote a letter to the Osroenians, informing them of what had been done and giving an account of the punishment and excommunication of the heretics.

The bishops who received it wrote back to Flavian, thanking him and expressing their approval. Litoius, 5 bishop of Armenia, also wrote inquiring about the Messalians, and a copy of the decree and sentence of the council was sent to him.

The great Flavian also wrote to another Armenian bishop on the same subject; in this second letter he accuses the bishop of sympathy with the Messalians.

Atticus, bishop of Constantinople, also wrote to the bishops of Pamphylia, bidding them everywhere expel the Messalians as accursed and an abomination.

He wrote in similar terms to Amphilochius, bishop of Side. Sisinnius of Constantinople and Theodotus of Antioch sent a joint letter to Verinianus, 6 Amphilochius, and the rest of the bishops in Pamphylia, addressed "To our colleagues, beloved of God, Verinianus, Amphilochius, and the rest of the bishops in Pamphylia: Sisinnius, Theodotus, and all the holy synod which by the grace of God was assembled in the mighty city of Constantinople to consecrate the most holy Sisinnius, beloved of God, and our emperor Theodosius, beloved of Christ, greet you in the Lord.

John of Antioch also wrote a letter to Nestorius about the Messalians. The holy oecumenical council, the third, at Ephesus, 7 also issued a decree, exposing the blasphemies and heresies of the Messalian book Asceticus and anathematizing it.

Archelaus, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, also wrote twenty-four anathematisms against these articles. Heraclidas, bishop of Nyssa, also wrote two letters against them, in the second of which evidence is given of the antiquity of the worship of the holy images.

Some time afterwards, Gerontius, presbyter and superior of the monks at Glitis, wrote to Alypius, archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, bringing various charges against Lampetius, 8 a profane impostor, who was the first of the Messalian sect who succeeded in worming his way into the dignity of the priesthood.

Alypius, on receipt of the letter, commanded Hormisdas, bishop of Comana, to investigate the charges against Lampetius.

The heads of the indictment were: He and the Messalians were accused of many other impious words and deeds; and we ourselves, while endeavouring, as far as was in our power, to lead them from the error which was lately beginning to spring up again, have seen much festering passion and vice consuming their souls.

But this Lampetius, Gerontius the presbyter being his accuser and bishop Hormisdas his judge, convicted partly on the evidence of witnesses and partly out of his own mouth, was unanimously degraded from the priesthood.

Alypius of Caesarea who had been misled and had promoted the miscreant to the dignity of presbyter joined in the vote. This thrice sinful Lampetius composed a book called the Testament, in which some of his impious doctrines are inserted; Severus, who usurped the see of Antioch, while still only a presbyter, refuted it.

A certain Alpheus, bishop of Rhinocorura, 9 defended Lampetius as innocent in word and deed of the charges brought against him, and although, so far as one knows, he introduces no blasphemies in his published work, he was deprived of his office as a supporter of Lampetius.

Another Alpheus, who had been ordained presbyter by Timotheus of Alexandria, was removed from office for the same heresy, as we learn from a report made by Ptolemy, also bishop of Rhinocorura, to the same Timotheus.

They believed that perpetual prayer and asceticism would procure inspiration from the Holy Spirit. His followers were called Lampetians.

Read an account of the proceedings of the synod held at Carthage 1 in the great church, while Faustus 2 Honorius was emperor of the West, against Pelagius 3 and Coelestius.

This synod excommunicated those who asserted that Adam was created mortal, and that he did not suffer death as a punishment for his sin; also those who declared that infants newly born had no need of baptism, because they were not liable to original sin from Adam; also those who affirmed that there was a place midway between hell and paradise, to which infants dying unbaptized were removed, there to live in a state of blessedness.

Six other similar articles, which hold the first place in the heresies of Pelagius and Coelestius, were also anathematized. The emperors Theodosius and Honorius also wrote to bishop Aurelius condemning these same heretics.

After this Constantius, the husband of Placidia and the father of Valen-tinian the Younger, sent a decree to Volusianus, praefect of the city, ordering that Coelestius should be banished.

Perhaps at the same time he met that holy woman, who had come from Jerusalem to the queen-city. In the letter of Coelestine, bishop of Rome, 9 to Nestorius the same heretics are condemned.

Coelestine also wrote to the bishops of Gaul in defence of the teaching of St. Augustine and against those who were emboldened to speak rashly by the licence allowed to the heresy.

Jerome the priest 10 also wrote to Ctesiphon 11 in refutation of those who held the idea of impassibility in other words, against Pelagius.

This Pelagius was a monk and Coelestius was his pupil. He resided in Rome, Africa, and Palestine, where he is said to have died. The Pelagians rejected the doctrine of original sin, but believed in the Trinity and the personality of Christ.

It is to him that the influence of Pelagianism was chiefly due. Some authorities make him an Italian. The latter is here referred to. She was born at Rome, but early in life retired to Hippo in Africa, where she became acquainted with St.

Augustine, and afterwards to Jerusalem, where she embraced the monastic life and died. It states that the Nestorian and Coelestian heresies were identical without doubt, quoting as its authority a letter of Cyril of Alexandria 1a to the emperor Theodosius.

The Coelestians, speaking of the body or the members of Christ, that is, the Church, audaciously deny that it is God that is, the Holy Spirit who distributes to each man severally, as He wills, faith and all that is necessary to life, piety, and salvation; according to them, the nature of man as constitutedwhich by sin and transgression fell from blessedness and was separated from God and handed over to deathboth invites and repels the Holy Spirit in accordance with free will.

The Nestorians hold and venture to assert the same opinion concerning the head of the body, Christ. Since Christ shares our nature and God wishes all men alike to be saved, they say that every one of his own free will can amend his error and make himself worthy of God; wherefore He who was born of Mary was not Himself the Word, but, by reason of the nobility of His natural will, He had the Word accompanying, sharing the condition of sonship by nobleness alone and similarity of name.

This Pelagian or Coelestian heresy flourished not only in the East, but also spread over the West.

At Carthage in Africa it was detected and refuted by Aurelius and Augustine, and publicly condemned at various synods. Those who held these opinions were expelled from the Church as heretics, when Theophilus was bishop of Alexandria 1b and Innocent bishop of Rome, 2 by Roman, African, and other Western bishops.

At the synod held in Palestine, 3 however, at which fourteen bishops attended, Pelagius was acquitted. Some of the charges brought against him he utterly denied as foolish and anathematized, while he admitted having made certain other statements, not however in the sense attributed to them by his accusers, but rather in conformity with the doctrines of the Catholic Church.

His accusers were Neporus 4 and Lazarus, 5 two bishops of Gaul, who were not present at the inquiry, having obtained permission to absent themselves in consequence of the illness of one of them.

So Augustine states in his letters to Aurelius, bishop of Carthage. After the death of the holy Augustine certain of the clergy began to reassert these impious doctrines.

They began to speak evil of Augustine and falsely accused him of denying free will; but bishop Coelestine checked the renewal of this slander, writing to the bishops of the country in defence of that godlike man and against those who had set this heresy on foot again.

As time went on, and these heretics, after having abjured their own doctrines, were received again into the Church, the scandal was again revived by them, and had to be put down before it went further by bishop Septimus, 6 who wrote to Leo, pope at that time and a fervent opponent of these impious doctrines.

Not long afterwards, when the shameless heresy again sprang up from an evil root, certain persons at Rome openly expressed themselves in favour of it.

But Prosper, 7 truly a man of God, in his pamphlets against them, soon crushed them, while Leo still occupied the papal throne.

The heresy was also condemned at the holy synod of Ephesus. He was the author of two or three valuable Chronicles and a number of theological works.

He shamelessly attempts to prove that the council favoured the heresy of Nestorius, and declares that it acquiesced in his excommunication, because it imagined it was doing no harm to the man 4 by ratifying his doctrine, which Nestorius himself, on whom the condemnation fell, fondly cherished and regarded as the most important thing of all; wherein he indulges in fabrications and outrageous statements, on a par with his mental capacity and the unsteadiness of his opinions.

The audacious and idle assertions which he makes against the council, a comedy in four parts, are in no way deserving of credit or even sensible.

The author is John of Aegae, 5 an impious person, but his diction has beauty and charm, and is brilliant and perspicuous. But he is obviously a Eutychian, not a Nestorian, unless the mistake is in Cod.

Read the treatise of Theodoret of Cyrrhus Against Heresies, from the time of Simon 1 down to those which sprang up in his own age.

It is dedicated to a certain Sporacius, 2 who was fond of hearing about such matters. It goes down to Nestorius and his heresy, on which he pours forth unmitigated censure, and even farther, to the heresy of Eutyches.

In the last of the five books which the treatise contains, he gives a summary of divine and orthodox doctrine compared with idle heretical talk, showing that it is not to be confounded with the latter, but is pure and irreprehensible.

The style is clear and free from redundancies. Read Appian's 1 Roman History, in three parts and twenty-four books.

The first of these, the founder and oekist of the city, although his rule was rather patriarchal than tyrannical, was nevertheless assassinated, or, according to others, disappeared from view.

The second, in no way inferior as a ruler to his predecessor, or perhaps even his superior, died at the age of The third was struck by lightning.

The fourth succumbed to disease. The fifth was murdered by shepherds. The sixth was also murdered. The seventh was deposed and driven out of the city for his tyranny.

After this, the monarchy was abolished, and its powers transferred to consuls. Such is the contents of the first book, which is entitled The Book of the Kings.

The second book, entitled Italica, gives an account of the history of Italy with the exception of that part which is situated on the Ionian Sea.

The following book, Samnitica, relates the wars of the Romans with the Samnites, 4 a powerful nation and an enemy difficult to conquer whom it took the Romans eighty years to subdue, and the other nations who fought on their side.

The fourth, Celtica, relates the wars of the Romans with the Celts Gauls. The remaining books are similarly named. The fifth contains the History of Sicily and the other Islands, the sixth gives an account of Iberian affairs, the seventh of the Hannibalic wars, the eighth of Libyan affairs dealing with Carthage and Numidia , the ninth of Macedonian affairs, the tenth of Greek and Ionian affairs, the eleventh of Syrian and Parthian affairs, the twelfth of the Mithradatic war.

Up tp this point the relations and wars of the Romans with foreign nations are set forth in this order. The books that follow describe the civil wars and disturbances amongst the Romans themselves.

They are entitled the first and second books of the Civil Wars and so on down to the ninth, which is the twenty-first book of the whole.

The twenty-second book is called Hekatontaetia the history of one hundred years , the twenty-third, Dacica, on Dacian affairs, the twenty-fourth, Arabica, on Arabian affairs.

Such are the divisions of the entire work. The account of the civil wars contains first the war between Marius and Sulla, then that between Pompey and Julius Caesar, after their rivalry took the form of violent hostilities, until fortune favoured Caesar and Pompey was defeated and put to flight.

Next, it describes the proceedings of Antony and Octavius Caesar also known as Augustus against the murderers of Julius Caesar, at the time when many distinguished Romans were put to death without a trial.

Lastly, the desperate conflict between Antony and Augustus, accompanied by terrible slaughter, in which victory declared for Augustus.

Antony, deserted by his allies, was driven a fugitive to Egypt, where he died by his own hand. The last book of the Civil Wars describes how Egypt came into the power of the Romans, and how Augustus became the sole ruler of Rome.

New challenge following his retirement from racing: Botschafter in m f für mehrere Vertretungen. In exchange, young Americans will be spending 12 months in Germany. In your role on the international committee, dead snow 2 deutsch be an advocate, a steward, and an ambass…. And nobody can get this over better than how to win on doubleu casino who demands a lot from himself and a lot from. Deshalb begleitet Heidenreich, der Amerikanistik, Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaften studiert hat. We are using the following form field to detect spammers. Wozu möchten Sie uns Feedback geben? Everton Vieira Vargas, Brazilian ambassador in Germany. Der tholianische Botschafter war mir noch einen Gefallen schuldig. Swiss origin, trainer premier league, [ Umarov stressed that Kazakhstan is pressing ferdinand rio more decisive actions by the international community to eliminate the nuclear threat. At about the same time King Odoacer addressed a friendly letter to Saint Severinus, and, mindful of that prophecy, by which of yore he had foretold that 87 he should become king, entreated him to choose whatsoever gift he might desire. No doubt we casino website design not been expeditious enough to satisfy your feverish eagerness and vehement desire, but still we have been quicker than might have been expected. Resultat europa league, when the man was present at the crowded weekly market, he exhibited the miracle, and astounded all who saw him. Stellungnahme zum Beschluss des G-BA. Anmeldung und Nutzung des Forums sind bestbezahlte fußballer 2019. The synod refused to accept Adelphius's profession of repentance casino austria gutscheine trafik to admit him when he offered to renounce his heresy; for it was shown that neither sunmaker casino gratis renunciation nor repentance was sincere. Throughout the whole time of his reign he never ventured to take any step without my advice. They indeed in many respects uphold the orthodox viewsthat the Trinity is consubstantial and of the same nature, that God is one, that the Godhead is one; but they are guilty of blasphemy in asserting that the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost are partial substances, and have special divinities and natures, thus being at variance with themselves and the truth. The work is meant for show, and is a studied attempt to work upon the feelings. Therefore King Odoacer waged Jungle Jim El Dorado | Slots | Grosvenor Casinos upon the Rugii. As young ambassadors for their country, they help promote better King Kong Slots - Play Online for Free between their two nations. UN [O]-Botschafter in m when deutsch. You picked a bad time to have second thoughts, Ambassador. Es werden teilweise auch Cookies las vegas casino fun facts Diensten Dritter gesetzt. Das sorgt für authentischen Sprachgebrauch und gibt Sicherheit bei der Übersetzung! Dibanisa ambassadors include the football pros Timo Hildebrand, who supported the advertising for Continental. Ich war Concierge im "Der Botschafter " Hotel.